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Watermark-based Counter for Restricting Digital Audio Consumption

Authors: Mikko Löytynoja, Nedeljko Cvejic, Tapio Seppänen


In this paper we introduce three watermarking methods that can be used to count the number of times that a user has played some content. The proposed methods are tested with audio content in our experimental system using the most common signal processing attacks. The test results show that the watermarking methods used enable the watermark to be extracted under the most common attacks with a low bit error rate.

Keywords: Digital rights management, Spread spectrum, audio watermarking, restricted usage, content protection

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