Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30840
Utilizing Dredged Sediment for Enhancing Growth of Eelgrass in Artificially Prepared Substrates

Authors: Amelia B. Hizon-Fradejas, Yoichi Nakano, Satoshi Nakai, Wataru Nishijima, Mitsumasa Okada


Dredged sediment (DS) was utilized as source of silt-clay and organic matter in artificially prepared eelgrass substrates with mountain sand (MS) as the sand media. Addition of DS showed improved growth of eelgrass in the mixed substrates. Increase in added DS up to 15% silt-clay showed increased shoot growth but additional DS in 20% silt-clay mixture didn-t result to further increase in eelgrass growth. Improved root establishment were also found for plants in pots with added DS as shown by the increased resistance to uprooting, increased number of rhizome nodes and longer roots. Results demonstrated that addition of DS may be beneficial to eelgrass up to a certain extent only and too much of it might be harmful to eelgrass plants.

Keywords: dredged sediment, eelgrass, eelgrass bed restoration, mountain sand, Zostera marina

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1094


[1] USEPA and USACE (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), "Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material", 2006, available from
[2] Costa-Pierce B.A. and Weinstein M.P., "Use of dredge material for coastal restoration", Ecological Engineering vol.19, pp. 181-186, 2002.
[3] Dabwan A.H.A., Imai D., Kaneco S., Senmatsu I., Nakahama K., Katsumata H., Suzuki T. and Ohta K., "Water purification with sintered porous materials fabricated at 400oC from sea bottom sediments", Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 20, pp. 172-176, 2008.
[4] Imai D., Kaneco S., Dabwan A.H.A., Katsumata H., Suzuki T., Kato T. and Ohta K., "Construction of biologically productive artificial tidal flats with solidified sea bottom sediments", International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water vol.1 no. 2, pp. 1-17, 2008.
[5] Bolam S.G. and Whomersley P., "Development of macrofaunal communities on dredged material used for mudflat enhancement: a comparison of three beneficial use schemes after one year", Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 50, pp. 40-47, 2005.
[6] USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), "Beneficial uses of dredged material" in Engineer manual EM 1110-2-5026, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Washington DC., USA,1987.
[7] Shafer D.J. and Streever W.J., "A comparison of 28 natural and dredged material salt marshes in Texas with an emphasis on geomorphological variables", Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol.8, pp. 353-366, 2000.
[8] Streever W.J. "Spartina alterniflora marshes on dredged material: a critical review of ongoing debate over success", Wetlands Ecology and Management, vol.8, pp. 295-316, 2000.
[9] Bolam S.G., Schratzberger M. and Whomersley P., "Macro- and meiofaunal recolonisation of dredged material used for habitat enhancement: Temporal patterns in community developments", Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 52, pp. 1746-1755, 2006.
[10] Ishii R., Nakano Y., Nakai S., Nishijima W. and Okada M., "Benthic ecosystem development in an artificial tidal flat constructed from dredged spoil" Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 56, pp. 2059-2066, 2008.
[11] Yozzo D.J., Wiber P. and Will R., "Beneficial use of dredged material for habitat creation, enhancement, and restoration in New York-New Jersey Harbor", Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 73, pp. 39-52, 2004.
[12] Zimmerman R.C., Reguzzoni J.L. and Alberte R.S., "Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in San Francisco Bay: Role of light availability on metabolism, growth and survival", Aquatic Botany, vol. 51, pp. 67-86, 1995.
[13] Hoshika A., Jahangir Sarker M., Ishida S., Mishima Y. and Takai N., "Food web analysis of an eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadow and neighbouring sites in Mitsukuchi Bay (Seto Inland Sea, Japan) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios" Aquat. Bot. vol. 85 no. 3, pp. 191-197, 2006
[14] Komatsu T., "Long term changes in the Zostera bed area in the Seto Inland Sea (Japan), especially along the coast of the Okayama Prefecture", Oceanologica Acta, vol. 20, pp. 209-216, 1997.
[15] Orth R. J., Harwell M.C. and Fishman J. R., "A rapid and simple method for transplanting eelgrass using single, unanchored shoots", Aquat. Bot., vol. 64 no. 1, pp. 77-85, 1999.
[16] van Katwijk M.M., Hermus D.C.R., de Jong D.J., Asmus R.M., de Jonge V.N., "Habitat suitability of the Wadden Sea for restoration of Zostera marina beds", Helgoland Mar. Res., vol. 54, pp. 117-128, 2000.
[17] Borde A.B., Thom R.M. and Fagergren E., "Eelgrass in captivity: Population dynamics in a confined system", 2001, available from: orde.pdf.
[18] Omoto S., Torii M., Miura S., Manabe K., and Nishimura K., "Growth of an artificial eelgrass bed on the coast of Hinase-Cho, Okayama Prefecture", Fisheries Engineering, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 75-78, 2005 (in Japanese with English abstract).
[19] Takeoka H., "Progress in Seto Inland Sea research", Journal of Oceanography, vol. 58, pp. 93-107, 2002.
[20] The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, "The slag sector in the steel industry", Nippon Slag Association, 2006, available from: http://www.slg/e/p-paper-e.pdf.
[21] Hizon-Fradejas A.B., Nakano Y., Nakai S., Nishijima W. and Okada M., "Evaluation of blast furnace slag as basal media for eelgrass bed", J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 166, pp. 1560-1566, 2009.
[22] Hosokowa Y., "Restoration of coastal tidal flat in Japan", in US-Japan Experts Meeting on the Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances, Nov.4-7, 1997, Kobe, Japan, pp. 1-8.
[23] MOE (Ministry of Environment of Japan), "Amendment 209 for law relating to the prevention of marine pollution and maritime disaster", 2005 (in Japanese).
[24] Tamaki H., Tokuoka M., Nishijima W., Terawaki T. and Okada M. , "Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L.,meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan", Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 44, pp. 1253-1258, 2002.
[25] Zieman J.C., "Methods for the study of the growth and production of turtle grass, Thalassia testudinum K├Ânig", Aquaculture, vol. 4, pp. 139-143, 1974.
[26] Nakano M., Miyazaki T., Shinozawa S., Nishimura T., Physical and Environmental Analysis of Soil, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 1995, pp. 64-74 (in Japanese).
[27] Erftemeijer P.L.A. and Koch E.W., "Sediment geology methods for seagrass habitat", in Global Seagrass Research Methods, F.T. Short, R.G Coles, Eds., Amsterdam:Elsevier Science, 2001, pp. 345-367.
[28] MOE (Ministry of Environment of Japan), Methods and Description of Bottom Sedimant Survey, Japan Environmental Measurement and Chemical Analysis Association, Tokyo, 1996 (in Japanese).
[29] Lee, J. G., Nishijima, W., Mukai, T., Takimoto, K., Seiki, T., Hiraoka, K., Okada, M., "Comparison for structure and functions of organic matter degradation at natural and constructed tidal flat", Jpn. Soc. Water Environ., vol. 20, pp. 175-184, 1997 (in Japanese).
[30] Lee, J. G., Nishijima, W., Mukai, T., Takimoto, K., Seiki, T., Hiraoka, K., Okada, M., "Factors to Determine the Functions and Structures in Natural and Constructed Tidal Flats", Water Res., vol. 32, pp. 2601-2606, 1998.
[31] Morse J.W., Zullig J.J., Iverson R.L., Chopin G.R., Mucci A., Millero F.J., "The influence of seagrass beds on carbonate sediments in the Bahamas", Marine Chemistry , vol. 22, pp. 71-83, 1987.
[32] Koch E. W., "Beyond light: Physical, geological, and geochemical parameters as possible submersed aquatic vegetation habitat requirements", Estuaries, vol. 24, pp. 1-17, 2001.
[33] Huettel M. and Rusch A., "Transport of phytoplankton in permeable sediment", Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 45, pp. 534- 549, 2000.
[34] Holmer M. and Nielsen S.L., "Sediment sulfur dynamics related to biomass-density pattern in Zostera marina (eelgrass) beds", Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., vol.146, pp. 163-171, 1997.
[35] Fonseca M. S. and Kenworthy W. J., "Effects of current on photosynthesis and distribution of seagrasses", Aqua. Bot., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 59-78, 1987.
[36] Eavis B.W. and Payne D., "Soil physical conditions and root growth", in Root Growth, W.J. Whittington, Ed., Butterworths, London, 1969, pp.315-338.
[37] Handley R. J. and Davy A. J., "Seedling root establishment may limit Najas marina L. to sediments of low cohesive strength", Aquat. Bot., vol.73, pp. 129-136, 2002.
[38] Hizon-Fradejas A.B., Nakano Y., Nakai S., Nishijima W. and Okada M., "Anchorage and resistance to uprooting of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) shoots planted in slag substrates", J. Water Env. Tech., vol.7, pp. 91-101, 2009.
[39] Kesser M., Swenarton J.T., Vozarik J.M. and Foertch J.F., "Decline in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Long Island Sound near Millstone Point, Connecticut (USA) unrelated to thermal input", J. Sea Res., vol. 49, pp. 11-26, 2003.
[40] Imao K. and Fushimi H., "Ecology of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.), especially environmental factors determining the occurrence of annual eelgrass in Lake Hamana-ko", Jap. J. Phycol., vol. 33, pp. 320-327, 1985.