Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30174
Effect of Stocking Density on Monosex Nile Tilapia Growth during Pond Culture in India

Authors: Suman B. Chakraborty, Samir Banerjee


Stocking density is considered one of the important factors affecting fish growth. But, information related to impact of stocking density on growth performance of monosex tilapia population under the ecological conditions of Gangetic plains in West Bengal, India is limited. The aim of our study was to compare the growth potential of monosex tilapia at various stocking densities and to determine an ideal stocking density for culture of all-male monosex fish. The males were isolated by examination of genital papilla region and were stocked separately in 0.01 ha earthen ponds at different stocking densities (5000, 10000, 15000, 20000, 25000 and 30000 fingerlings/ha). It was found that the highest weight, length, daily weight gain, growth rate and protein content were observed for the 20000 fish/ha density class. Thus, culture of monosex tilapia at a density of 20000 fish/ha can be considered ideal for augmented production of the fish under Indian context.

Keywords: Growth potential, Nile tilapia, Pond culture, Stockingdensity.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5337


[1] O. M. E .Azim, M. C. J. Verdegem, M. Singh, A. A. van Dam and M. C. M. Beveridge, "The effect of periphyton substrate and fish stocking density on water quality, phytoplankton, periphyton and fish growth". Aquaculture Research, vol. 34, pp. 685-695, 2003.
[2] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), "The state of world fisheries and aquaculture". 2000. FAO, Rome, 2000.
[3] S. A. Osofero, S. O. Otubusin and J. A. Daramola, "Effect of stocking density on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1757) growth and survival in bamboo-net cages trial". Africal Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1322-1325, 2009.
[4] K. M. Liu and W. B. Chang, "Bioenergetic modeling of effect of fertilization, stocking density, and spawning on growth of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)". Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, vol. 23, pp. 291-301, 1992.
[5] Y. A. R. Khattab, M. Abdel-Tawwab and M. H. Ahmad, "Effect of protein level and stocking density on growth performance, survival rate, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus L.)", in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, R. Bolivar, G. Mair and K. Fitzsimmons, Eds. Manila, Philippines, BFAR, Philippines, 2004, pp. 264-276.
[6] M. T. Ridha, "Comparative study of growth performance of three strains of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, L. at two stocking densities". Aquaculture Research, vol. 37, pp. 172-179, 2006.
[7] A. M. El- Sayed, "Effect of stocking density and feeding levels on growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry". Auaculture Research, vol. 33, pp. 621-626, 2002.
[8] G. G. Tsadik and A. N. Bart, "Effects of feeding, stocking density and water-flow rate on fecundity, spawning frequency and egg quality of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)". Aquaculture, vol. 272, pp. 380-388, 2007.
[9] R. Coleman, "Cichlids and Science: Bad Cichlids?" Cichlid News Magazine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 32-34, 2001.
[1]. Hepher and Pruginin, "Commercial Fish Farming". John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981, pp. 291.
[11] E. S. Smith and R. P. Phelps, "Impact of feed storage conditions on growth and efficacy of sex reversal of Nile tilapia". North American Journal of Aquaculture, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 242-245, 2001.
[12] J. A. Beardmore, G. C. Mair and R. I. Lewis, "Monosex male production in finfish as exemplified by tilapia: applications, problems, and prospects". Aquaculture, vol. 197, pp. 283-301, 2001.
[13] D. M. Liti, B. Fulanda, J. M. Munguti, M. Straif, H. Waidbacher and G. Winkler, "Effects of open-pond density and caged biomass of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) on growth, feed utilization, economic returns and water quality in fertilized ponds". Aquaculture Research, vol. 36, pp. 1535-1543, 2005.
[14] APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th edn. APHA (American Public Health Association), Washington, USA, 1998.
[15] J. Pechsiri and A. Yakupitiyage, "A comparative study of growth and feed utilization efficiency of sex-reversed diploid and triploid Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L". Aquaculture Research, vol. 36, pp. 45-51, 2005.
[16] D. B. Duncan, "Multiple range and multiple F tests". Biometrics, vol. 11, pp. 1-42, 1955.
[17] Md. A. Islam, D. R. Das, S. M. Khalequzzaman, D. Kamal and K. M. Abdul Halim, "Extensive culture of red tilapia with four stocking densities at Beel Kodalia, Bagerhat, Bangladesh". Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1965-1969, 2006.
[18] A. Tran-Duy, J. W. Schrama, A. A. van Dam and J. A. J. Verreth, "Effects of oxygen concentration and body weight on maximum feed intake, growth and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus". Aquaculture, vol. 275, pp. 152-162, 2008.
[19] Y. Yi and C. K. Lin, "Effect of biomass of caged Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and aeration on the growth and yields in an integrated cage-cum-pond system". Aquaculture, vol. 195, pp. 253-267, 2001.
[20] J. S. Diana, Y. Yi and C. K. Lin, "Stocking densities and fertilization regimes for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production in ponds with supplemental feeding", in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, R. Bolivar, G. Mair and K. Fitzsimmons, Eds. Manila, Philippines, BFAR, Philippines, 2004, pp. 487-499.
[21] N. I. Ouattara, G. G. Teugels, V. N. Douba and J. C. Philippart, "Aquaculture potential of the black-chinned tilapia, Sarotherodon melanotheron (Chiclidae). Comparative study of the effect of stocking density on growth performance of landlocked and natural populations under cage culture conditions in Lake Ayame (Cote d-Ivoire)". Aquaculture Research, vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1223-1229, 2003.
[22] W. B. Dambo and K. J. Rana, "Effects of stocking density on growth and survival of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) fry in the hatchery". Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, vol. 23, pp. 71-80, 1992.
[23] L. G. J. Barcellos, S. Nicolaiewsky, S. M. J. de Souza and F. Lulhier, "The effects of stocking density and social interaction on acute stress response in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (L.) fingerlings". Aquaculture Research, vol. 30, pp. 887-892, 1999.
[24] M. J. Kebus, M. T. Collins, M. S. Brownfield, C.H. Amundson, T. R. Kayes and J. A. Malison, "Effects of rearing density on stress response and growth of rainbow trout". Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, vol. 4, pp. 1-6, 1992.
[25] N. J. King, W.H. Howell, M. Huber and D. A. Bengtson, "Effects of stocking density on laboratory-scale production of summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus". Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, vol. 31, pp. 436-445, 2000.
[26] B. A. Barton and G. K. Iwama, "Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on the response and effects of corticosteroids". Annual Reviews of Fish Diseases, vol. 10, pp. 3-26, 1991.
[27] N. W. Pankhurst and G. Van der Kraak, "Effects of stress on reproduction and growth of fish", in Fish stress and health in aquaculture, J. K. Iwama and A. D. Pickering, Eds. Cambridge university Press, Cambridge, 1997, pp. 73-93.