Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30011
Quantifying Landscape Connectivity: A GIS-based Approach
Authors: Siqing S. Chen
Abstract:Landscape connectivity combines a description of the physical structure of the landscape with special species- response to that structure, which forms the theoretical background of applying landscape connectivity principles in the practices of landscape planning and design. In this study, a residential development project in the southern United States was used to explore the meaning of landscape connectivity and its application in town planning. The vast rural landscape in the southern United States is conspicuously characterized by the hedgerow trees or groves. The patchwork landscape of fields surrounded by high hedgerows is a traditional and familiar feature of the American countryside. Hedgerows are in effect linear strips of trees, groves, or woodlands, which are often critical habitats for wildlife and important for the visual quality of the landscape. Based on geographic information system (GIS) and statistical analysis (FRAGSTAT), this study attempts to quantify the landscape connectivity characterized by hedgerows in south Alabama where substantial areas of authentic hedgerow landscape are being urbanized due to the ever expanding real estate industry and high demand for new residential development. The results of this study shed lights on how to balance the needs of new urban development and biodiversity conservation by maintaining a higher level of landscape connectivity, thus will inform the design intervention.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1056498Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Andrén, H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. - Oikos 71:355-366.
 Taylor, P.D., Fahrig, L. Henein, K. and Merriam,G. 1993. Connectivity is a vital element of landscape structure. Oikos 68(3): 571-572.
 Chen, S. 2009. Integrating Hedgerow into Town Planning: A Framework for Sustainable Residential Development. Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 41 May 2009. pp. 134-143.
 Forman, R.T.T. and Godron, M., 1985. Landscape Ecology. Wiley, New York, 619 pp.
 McGarigal, K., SA Cushman, MC Neel, and E Ene. 2002. FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts.
 Alexander, W. B. (1932). The bird population of an Oxfordshire farm. Journal of Animal Ecology 1, 58-64.
 Altieri, M. A. (1999). The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74, 19-31.
 Baltensperger, B. H. (1987). Hedgerow distribution and removal in non-forested regions of the Midwest. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 42, 60-64.
 Barr, C. J., Bunce, R. G. H., Clark R. T., Fuller, R. M., Gillespie, M. K., Groom, G. B., et al. (1993). Countryside Survey 1990, Main Report. London: Department of the Environment.
 Battershill, M. R. J. and Gilg, A. W. (1997). Socio-economic constraints and environmentally friendly farming in the southwest of England. Journal of Rural Studies 13, 213-228.
 Beedel, J. and Rehman, T. (2000). Using socialpsychology models to understand farmers- conservation behaviour. Journal of Rural Studies 16, 117-127.
 Gerry Barnes and Tom Williamson, 2006. Hedgerow history: ecology, history and landscape character /.
 Birks, P.E. Kaland and D. Moe (Editors), The Cultural Landscape: Past, Present and Future. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 53-77.
 Braekevelt, A. (1988). Evolution of the spatial structure of hedgerows in the Hautland (NWBelgium). Connectivity in landscape ecology. In Proceedings of 2nd International Seminar of IALE (S. K.F, ed.), M┬¿unstersche Geographische Arbeiten 29, 153-161.
 Buckley (Editors), Hedgerow Management and Nature Conservation. Wye College Press, Wye, pp. 47-57.
 Burel, F. (1996). Hedgerows and their role in agricultural landscapes. Critical Review in Plant Sciences 15, 169-190.
 Burel, F. and Baudry, J., 1994. Control of biodiversity in hedgerow network landscapes in western France. In: T.A. Wah, and G.P.
 Burel, F., 1989. Landscape structure effects on carabid beetles- spatial patterns in Western France. Landscape Ecol., 2: 215-226.
 Burel, F., 1992. Effect of landscape structure and dynamics on carabids- biodiversity in Brittany, France. Landscape Ecol., 6: 161-194.
 Burel, F., Baudry, J. and Lefeuvre, J.C., 1993. Landscape structure and water fluxes. In: M.G. Pao1ettiandG.G. Lorenzoni (Editors), Landscape Ecology and Agroecosystems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
 Clergeau, P. and Burel, F. (1997). The role of spatio-temporal patch connectivity at the landscape level: an example in a bird distribution. Landscape and Urban Planning 38, 37-43.
 Cooper, A. and McCann. (1997). Northern Ireland Countryside Survey 2000 Field Handbook. Coleraine: University of Ulster.
 Cronon, William. 1983. Changes in the land, Indians, colonists and the ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang.
 Corner, J. 2003. Landscape Urbanism, in Mostafavi, Mohsen and Najle, Ciro (ed). Landscape urbanism: a manual for the machinic landscape. Architectural Association, London, 2003.
 Cox , Thomas, R. 1985. This well-wooded land : Americans and their forests fromcolonial times to the present.
 Delattre, P., De Sousa, B., Fichet-Calvet, E., Qu'er'e, J. P. and Giraudoux, P. (1999). Vole outbreaks in a landscape context: evidence from a 6-year study of Microtus arvalis. Landscape Ecology 14, 401-412.
 Dramstad et al. 1996, Landsacpe Ecology Principles and applications in Landscape Architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.
 Dmowski, K. and Koziakiewicz, M. 1990. Influence of a shrub corridor on movements of passerine birds to a lake littoral zone. Landscape Ecology 4, 98-108.
 Man, A., R. Law, and N. V. C. Polunin. 1995. Role of marine reserves in recruitment to reef fisheries: a metapopulation model. Biological Conservation 71: 197-204.
 Forman, R. R. T. 1996. Land Masaic. Cambridge Univeristy Press.
 Erickson, D. L., R. L. Ryan, and R. De Young. 2002. Woodlots in the rural landscape: Landowner motivations and management attitudes in a Michigan case study. Landscape and Urban Planning , 58: 101-112.
 Fabos, J.G., 1991. From parks to greenways into the 21st century. In: Proceedings from Selected Educational Sessions of the 1991 ASLA Annual Meeting, Kansas City, MO.
 Forman, R. T. T. and Baudry, J. (1984).Hedgerows and hedgerow networks in landscape ecology. Environmental Management 8, 499-510.
 Lindhult, M., J. Fabos, P. Brown, and N. Prince, 1988. Using Geographic Information Systems to Assess Conflicts Between Agriculture and Development," Landscape and Urban Planning , December 1988, Vol. 16, pp. 333-343.
 Marc Antrop. Why landscapes of the past are important for the future. Landscape and Urban Planning 70 (2005) 21-34.
 Marshall, E. J. P. and Arnold,G.M. (1995). Factors affecting field weed and field margins flora on a farm in Essex, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning 31, 205-216.
 Meeus, J., van der Ploeg, J.D. and Wijermans, M., 1988. Changing agricultural landscapes in Europe: continuity, deterioration or rupture? IFLA Conference, Rotterdam, 104 pp.
 Merriam, G. and Lanoue, A., 1990. Corridor use by small mammals: field measurement for three experimental type of Peromyscus leucopus. Landscape Ecol., 4(2): 123-133.
 Nabhan, G. P. and Sheridan, T. E. (1977). Living fencerows of the Rio San Miguel, Sonora, Mexico: traditional technology for floodplain management. Human Ecology 5, 97-111.
 Nassauer, J. and Westmacott,R., 1987. Progressiveness among farmers as a factor in heterogeneity of farmed landscapes. In: M.G. Turner (Editor), Landscape Heterogeneity and Disturbance. Springer-Verlag. New York, pp. 199-210.
 Opdam, P., van Apeldoom, R., Schotman, A. and Kalkhoven J., 1993. Population responses to landscape fragmentation. In: C.C. Vos and P. Opdam (Editors), Landscape Ecology of a Stressed Environment. IALE Studies in Landscape Ecology 1. Chapman and Hall, London.
 Oreszczyn, S. and Lane, B. (1999). How hedgerows and field margins are perceived by different interest groups. Aspects of Applied Biology 54, 29-36.
 Oreszczyn, S. and Lane, B. (2000). The meaning of the hedgerows in the English landscape: different stakeholder perspectives and the implications for future hedge management. J of Environ Management 60, 101-118.
 Oreszczyn, S. M. and A. B. Lane (2001). Hedgerows of different cultures: implications from a Canadian and English cross-cultural study. in C. Barr and S. Petit (eds.) Hedgerows of the World: their ecological functions in different landscapes. Proceedings of the 2001 Annual IALE (UKL) Conference, University of Birmingham. IALE, UK.
 Paoletti, M.G. and Pimentel, D., 1992. Biotic Diversity in Agree cosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 356 pp.
 Rippon, Stephen, 2004. Historic landscape analysis: deciphering the countryside. Council for British Archaeology.
 Rackham, O. and Moody, J. (1996). The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
 Pollard, E., Hooper,M.D. and Moore, N. W. (1974). Hedges. London: W. Collins and Sons.
 Dramstad, W.E., J.D. Olson, R.T.T. Forman, 1996. Landscape ecology principles in landscape architecture and land-use planning. Island Press.
 Ryan, R. L. and J. T. Hansel Walker. 2004. Protecting and managing private farmland and public open spaces in the urban fringe: Lessons for greenway implementation. Landscape and Urban Planning 68 (2-3): 183-198.
 Space based ornithology: on the wings of migration and biophysics, NASA, 2005; Wetlands International, 2005; United Nations Environment Program, 2006.
 Saunders, D.A. and Hobbs, R.J. (Editors), 1991. The role of Corridors. Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton. Australia, 442 pp.
 Hansen, A. J., and D. L. Urban. 1992. Avian response to landscape pattern: the role of species- life histories. Landscape Ecology 7: 163-180.