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Reversible Watermarking for H.264/AVC Videos

Authors: Yih-Chuan Lin, Jung-Hong Li


In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on histogram shifting (HS) to embed watermark bits into the H.264/AVC standard videos by modifying the last nonzero level in the context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) domain. The proposed method collects all of the last nonzero coefficients (or called last level coefficient) of 4×4 sub-macro blocks in a macro block and utilizes predictions for the current last level from the neighbor block-s last levels to embed watermark bits. The feature of the proposed method is low computational and has the ability of reversible recovery. The experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed scheme has acceptable degradation on video quality and output bit-rate for most test videos.

Keywords: reversible data hiding, H.264/AVC standard, CAVLC, Histogram shifting

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

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[On-line]. Available:, Joint Model 12.2 (JM12.2), Jan. 2009.