Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30054
Using Strategic CSR to Achieve the Hybrid Middle Ground in Social Entrepreneurship: The Case of Telenor Hungary

Authors: Peter Hardi, Bala Mulloth

Abstract:

To be considered a socially entrepreneurial organization today requires achieving what can be termed a “hybrid middle ground” equilibrium, comprising of economic as well as social sustainability. This middle ground requires some blend of both business and social commitments. In this paper, we use the case of Hungary's second ranked mobile operator, Telenor Hungary to illustrate an example of a company that is moving to the hybrid middle ground by transitioning from a for-profit company to a socially responsible business using the concept of strategic CSR. In this line of thinking, the organization explicitly supports programs and initiatives that have a direct link to the core business and bring operational and/or financial advantages for the company, while creating a positive social and/or environmental impact. The important lessons learned from the company transition are also discussed. 

Keywords: Hybrid middle ground, social entrepreneurship, strategic corporate social responsibility.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1088330

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF

References:


[1] Aguinis, H. and A. Glavas.; “What We Know and Don’t Know About Corporate Social Responsibility: A Review and Research Agenda”, Journal of Management, 38/6, (2012) pp. 932-968.
[2] Alvord, S., D. Brown and C. Letts.; “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study”, The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3): 260-282, 2004
[3] Alvy, Geoff, Lees, Ann & Thompson, John.; Social entrepreneurship - a new look at the people and the potential. Management Decision (Vol. 38) No.5, pp. 348-338, 2000
[4] Bator, F.M.; “The Anatomy of Market Failure”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 72/3 (1958) pp. 351–379
[5] Cadbury, A.; The company chairman. Cambridge: Institute of Directors, 1990
[6] Cadbury, A.;. Corporate social responsibility. Twenty-First Century Society, 1(1), pp. 5-21, 2006
[7] Carroll, A.; “The pyramid of corporate social responsibility”, Business Horizons, July-August (1991), pp. 39-48
[8] Dart, R. The legitimacy of social enterprise. Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 14 (4), 411–424, 2004.
[9] Dees, G;, “The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship”, 2001
[10] Desa, G. “ Social Entrepreneurship: Snapshots of a Research Field in Emergence”, working paper, 2008
[11] Emerson, J., & Twersky, F, “New social entrepreneurs: The success, challenge and lessons of non-profit enterprise creation”. San Francisco: Roberts Foundation, Homeless Economic Development Fund, 1999
[12] Fox, T. H. Ward and B. Howard.; “Public Sector Roles In Strengthening Corporate Social Responsibility: A Baseline Study”, The World Bank: Washington D.C, 2002
[13] Franks, J. and C. Mayer, “Trends in business organization: Do participation and cooperation increase competitiveness?”, Ownership and control. In H. Siebertb(Ed), Tubingen: Mohr, 1995
[14] Freeman, R. E.; Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman, 1984
[15] Freeman, R. E.; Managing for stakeholders. In: Tom L. Beauchamp, Norman E. Bowie, & Denis G. Arnold, (Eds.), Ethical Theory and Business, 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007
[16] Haig, M., & Jones, M.T.; “The drivers of corporate social Responsibility: A critical review”, The Business Review, Cambridge 5(2), 2006
[17] Hansmann, H. B; “The Role of Nonprofit Enterprise”, Yale Law Journal, 89(5): 835-901,1980
[18] Hardi, P. and Radacsi, G., 2011. “Streamlining CSR: An answer in economic difficulties.” CEU Business School Case study, Budapest 2011
[19] Haugh, H.; “New Strategies for a Sustainable Society: The Growing Contribution of Social Entrepreneurship,” Business Ethics Quarterly, vol. 17, issue 4, pp. 743-749, 2007
[20] Light, P; “Searching for Social Entrepreneurs: Who might they be, where they might be found, what they do”, Paper presented at the Association for Research on Nonprofit and Voluntary Associations, 2005
[21] Mair, J., & Marti, I.; “Social Entrepreneurship: What are we talking about? A framework for future research”, IESE University of Navarra, Barcelona, 2004
[22] Mair, J., & Marti, I.; “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight", Journal of World Business, 41(1): 36, 2006
[23] McBarnet, D., A. Voiculescu and T. Campbell eds.; The New Corporate Accountability: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007
[24] Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R. & Wood, D. J.; “Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience”, Academy of Management Review, 22(4), pp. 853-886, 1997
[25] Moon, J. R. Slager, C. Brunn, P. Hardi, JS. Knudsen, “Analysis of the National and EU Policies Supporting Corporate Social Responsibilities and Impacts”, IMPACT Working Paper No 2 (2012), available at http://csr-impact.eu/documents/documentsdetail. html?documentid=5(last visited 11 Feb. 2013)
[26] Mulloth, B, "Diversity in contemporary entrepreneurship: The evolution of two representative clean technology companies in New York City as cases in point", Doctoral dissertation, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, 2011, 256 pages; 345804
[27] Oster, S. M et al, “Generating and sustaining non-profit earned income. A guide to successful enterprise strategies”, San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass, 2004.
[28] Porter, M., E., & Kramer, M., R.; “Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility”, Harvard Business Review, December, 2006, 1-14
[29] Rothstein, B. and Jan Teorell. J.; “Defining and measuring quality of government." in Good Government: The Relevance of Political Science, (Eds. Holmberg , S. and Rothstein., B. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 6-26, 2012
[30] Rayp, G., and N. Van De Sijpe..; “Measuring and explaining government efficiency in developing countries”, The Journal of Development Studies 43/2 (2007) pp. 360-381
[31] Seelos, C and Mair, J.; "Social Entrepreneurship: Creating New Business Models to Serve the Poor," Business Horizons 48, 247-252, 2005
[32] Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S.; “The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research”. Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 217, 2000
[33] Thompson, J. D.; Organizations in Action. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2002
[34] Tracey, P. and N. Phillips, “The Distinctive Challenge of Educating Social Entrepreneurs: A postscript and rejoinder to the special issue on entrepreneurship education”, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 6, No. 2 264-271, 2007
[35] Waddock, S. A and Post, J. E; “Social Entrepreneurs And Catalytic Change”, Public Administration Review, 51(5): 393-401, 1991
[36] Warhurst, A.; “Corporate citizenship and corporate social investment: Drivers of tri-sector partnerships”, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, spring, 2001, 57-73.
[37] Wartick, S. L and Cochran, P. L; “The Evolution of the Corporate Social Performance Model”, The Academy of Management Review, 10(4): 758, 1985
[38] Wood, D. J.; “Corporate social performance revisited”, Academy of Management Review, 16, 691–718, 1991
[39] Young, D. R.;. Entrepreneurship and the Behavior of Nonprofit Organizations: Elements of a Theory. In S. Rose-Ackerman (Ed.), The Economics of Nonprofit Institutions: Studies in Structure and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.