FITTER - A Framework for Integrating Activity Tracking Technologies into Electric Recreation for Children and Adolescents
Encouraging physical activity amongst children and adolescents is becoming an increasingly relevant issue in modern society. Studies have shown that involving children and adolescents in physical activity is essential for their physical, mental and social development. However, with technology playing an increasingly important role in reducing physical work it is becoming more critical to incorporate adequate physical activities into our lives. One way to overcome this problem is to harness technology so that it promotes physical activities, for example, by motivating children and adolescents to exercise more. This paper describes a promising solution to the question of how to increase levels of physical activity in children and adolescents by combining gaming technologies with exercise tracking goals. This research describes a framework called FITTER (Framework for Integrating activity Tracking Technologies for Electronic Recreation) that combines video game play with more traditional, non-computer physical activities.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1087678Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2094
 T. J. Lobstein, W. James, and T. Cole, "Increasing levels of excess weight among children in England," International journal of obesity, vol. 27, pp. 1136-1138, 2003.
 C. L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, L. R. Curtin, M. A. McDowell, C. J. Tabak, and K. M. Flegal, "Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004," JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, pp. 1549-1555, 2006.
 M. L. Booth, M. Wake, T. Armstrong, T. Chey, K. Hesketh, and S. Mathur, "The epidemiology of overweight and obesity among Australian children and adolescents, 1995‐97," Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, vol. 25, pp. 162-168, 2001.
 C. L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, B. K. Kit, and K. M. Flegal, "Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010," JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, pp. 483-490, 2012.
 IASO. (15 May 2013). Estimating the association between overweight and risk of disease. Available: http://www.iaso.org/iotf/ obesity/heathimpactobesity/
 P. G. Kopelman, "Obesity as a medical problem," Nature, vol. 404, pp. 635-643, 2000.
 J. Wardle and L. Cooke, "The impact of obesity on psychological wellbeing," Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 19, pp. 421-440, 2005.
 M. S. Tremblay and J. D. Willms, "Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity?," International journal of obesity, vol. 27, pp. 1100-1105, 2003.
 S. T. Leatherdale and S. Wong, "Peer Reviewed: Association between Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Obesity: Inactivity among Active Kids," Preventing chronic disease, vol. 6, 2009.
 J. Fromme, "Computer games as a part of children’s culture," Game studies, vol. 3, 2003.
 M. M. Carvalhal, M. C. Padez, P. A. Moreira, and V. M. Rosado, "Overweight and obesity related to activities in Portuguese children, 7–9 years," The European Journal of Public Health, vol. 17, pp. 42-46, 2007.
 W. B. Strong, R. M. Malina, C. J. Blimkie, S. R. Daniels, R. K. Dishman, B. Gutin, A. C. Hergenroeder, A. Must, P. A. Nixon, and J. M. Pivarnik, "Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth," The Journal of pediatrics, vol. 146, pp. 732-737, 2005.
 P. Gordon-Larsen, R. G. McMurray, and B. M. Popkin, "Determinants of adolescent physical activity and inactivity patterns," Pediatrics, vol. 105, pp. e83-e83, 2000.
 R. Maddison, L. Foley, C. N. Mhurchu, Y. Jiang, A. Jull, H. Prapavessis, M. Hohepa, and A. Rodgers, "Effects of active video games on body composition: a randomized controlled trial," The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 94, pp. 156-163, 2011.
 T. Toscos, A. Faber, K. Connelly, and A. M. Upoma, "Encouraging physical activity in teens Can technology help reduce barriers to physical activity in adolescent girls?," in Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare, 2008. PervasiveHealth 2008. Second International Conference on, 2008, pp. 218-221.
 R. Maddison, C. N. Mhurchu, A. Jull, Y. Jiang, H. Prapavessis, and A. Rodgers, "Energy expended playing video console games: an opportunity to increase children's physical activity?," Pediatric Exercise Science, vol. 19, p. 334, 2007.
 L. E. Graves, N. D. Ridgers, and G. Stratton, "The contribution of upper limb and total body movement to adolescents’ energy expenditure whilst playing Nintendo Wii," European journal of applied physiology, vol. 104, pp. 617-623, 2008.
 C. N. Mhurchu, R. Maddison, Y. Jiang, A. Jull, H. Prapavessis, and A. Rodgers, "Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children," International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 5, p. 8, 2008.
 K. White, G. Schofield, and A. E. Kilding, "Energy expended by boys playing active video games," Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 14, pp. 130-134, 2011.
 L. Graves, G. Stratton, N. Ridgers, and N. Cable, "Energy expenditure in adolescents playing new generation computer games," British journal of sports medicine, vol. 42, pp. 592-594, 2008.
 R. Mark, M. S. Bkin, and R. E. Rhodes, "Active Video Games: A Good Way to Exercise?," ed: WellSpring, 2009.
 J. Yim and T. Graham, "Using games to increase exercise motivation," in Proceedings of the 2007 conference on Future Play, 2007, pp. 166- 173.
 A. Whitehead, H. Johnston, N. Nixon, and J. Welch, "Exergame effectiveness: what the numbers can tell us," in Proceedings of the 5th ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Video Games, 2010, pp. 55-62.
 K. Kiili and S. Merilampi, "Developing engaging exergames with simple motion detection," in Proceedings of the 14th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, 2010, pp. 103-110.
 L. Yu-Ching, W. Shih-Ting, and Y. Jie-Chi, "An Investigation of the Exergames Experience with Flow State, Enjoyment, and Physical Fitness," in Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on, 2012, pp. 58-60.
 T. Baranowski, J. Baranowski, T. O'Connor, A. S. Lu, and D. Thompson, "Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?," GAMES FOR HEALTH: Research, Development, and Clinical Applications, vol. 1, pp. 228-232, 2012.
 A. Macvean and J. Robertson, "Understanding Exergame Users’ Physical Activity, Motivation and Behavior Over Time," 2013.
 W. Peng, J.-H. Lin, and J. Crouse, "Is Playing Exergames Really Exercising? A Meta-Analysis of Energy Expenditure in Active Video Games " Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, vol. 14 pp. 681-688, November 28, 2011.
 R. R. Mellecker and A. M. McManus, "Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to seated and active gaming in children," Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 162, p. 886, 2008.
 C. R. Nigg, "Technology’s influence on physical activity and exercise science: the present and the future," Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol. 4, pp. 57-65, 2003.
 S. Consolvo, K. Everitt, I. Smith, and J. A. Landay, "Design requirements for technologies that encourage physical activity," in Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems, 2006, pp. 457-466.
 J. Lin, L. Mamykina, S. Lindtner, G. Delajoux, and H. Strub, "Fish’n’Steps: Encouraging Physical Activity with an Interactive Computer Game," in UbiComp 2006: Ubiquitous Computing. vol. 4206, P. Dourish and A. Friday, Eds., ed: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006, pp. 261-278.
 I. Anderson, J. Maitland, S. Sherwood, L. Barkhuus, M. Chalmers, M. Hall, B. Brown, and H. Muller, "Shakra: tracking and sharing daily activity levels with unaugmented mobile phones," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 12, pp. 185-199, 2007.
 S. Purpura, V. Schwanda, K. Williams, W. Stubler, and P. Sengers, "Fit4life: the design of a persuasive technology promoting healthy behavior and ideal weight," in Proceedings of the 2011 annual conference on Human factors in computing systems, 2011, pp. 423-432.
 L. Barkhuus, "Designing ubiquitous computing technologies to motivate fitness and health," in Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, 2006.
 D. Pogue, "2 Wristbands Keep Tabs on Fitness," in The New York Times, U.S. ed, November 14, 2012.
 B. Morin. (November 21, 2012, 8 May 2013). Review of the 5 Most Popular Wearable Activity Trackers. Available: http://www.brit.co/ activity-trackers/
 fitbit. (2013, 12 May 2013). Never stop moving with Fitbit Flex. Available: http://www.fitbit.com/au/flex
 Amiigo. (2013, 12 May 2013). Amiigo. Available: http://amiigo.co/
 Jawbone. (2012, 9 May 2013). Up Know Yourself Live Better. Available: https://jawbone.com/up
 Nike. (2013, 12 May 2013). Nike + FuelBand. Available: http://www.nike.com/us/en_us/c/nikeplus-fuelband
 Lark. (2013, 12 May 2013). LarkLife. Available: http://lark.com/products/larklife/experience#watchVideo/1/
 P. L. Schneider, S. E. Crouter, O. Lukajic, and D. R. Bassett, "Accuracy and reliability of 10 pedometers for measuring steps over a 400-m walk," Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, vol. 35, pp. 1779- 1784, 2003.
 D. Hendelman, K. Miller, C. Baggett, E. Debold, and P. Freedson, "Validity of accelerometry for the assessment of moderate intensity physical activity in the field," Medicine and science in sports and exercise, vol. 32, pp. S442-S449, 2000.
 S.-S. C. S. V. Bravata Dm and et al., "Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: A systematic review," JAMA, vol. 298, pp. 2296-2304, 2007.
 C. E. Tudor-Locke and A. M. Myers, "Methodological considerations for researchers and practitioners using pedometers to measure physical (ambulatory) activity," Research quarterly for exercise and sport, vol. 72, pp. 1-12, 2001.
 D. R. Bassett Jr, B. E. Ainsworth, S. R. Leggett, C. A. Mathien, J. A. Main, D. C. Hunter, and G. E. Duncan, "Accuracy of five electronic pedometers for measuring distance walked," Medicine and science in sports and exercise, vol. 28, p. 1071, 1996.
 S. Averkamp. (2013, April). How to wear a pedometer. Available: http://www.fitnessforweightloss.com/how-do-i-wear-my-pedometer/
 S. D. Vincent and R. P. Pangrazi, "An examination of the activity patterns of elementary school children," Pediatric Exercise Science, vol. 14, pp. 432-441, 2002.
 C. Tudor-Locke, D. Bassett, Jr., A. Swartz, S. Strath, B. Parr, J. Reis, K. DuBose, and B. Ainsworth, "A Preliminary study of one year of pedometer self-monitoring," Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 28, pp. 158-162, 2004/10/01 2004.
 D. R. Bassett, B. E. Ainsworth, A. M. Swartz, S. J. Strath, W. L. O Brien, and G. A. King, "Validity of four motion sensors in measuring moderate intensity physical activity," Medicine and science in sports and exercise, vol. 32, pp. S471-S480, 2000.
 C. A. Hardman, P. J. Horne, and A. V. Rowlands, "Children's Pedometer-determined Physical Activity During School-time and Leisure-time," Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, vol. 7, pp. 129- 134, 2009.
 A. V. Rowlands, R. G. Eston, and D. K. Ingledew, "Relationship between activity levels, aerobic fitness, and body fat in 8-to 10-yr-old children," Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 86, pp. 1428-1435, 1999.
 R. Shaw, E. Fenwick, G. Baker, C. McAdam, C. Fitzsimons, and N. Mutrie, "'Pedometers cost buttons': the feasibility of implementing a pedometer based walking programme within the community," BMC Public Health, vol. 11, p. 200, 2011.
 G. J. Welk, J. A. Differding, R. W. Thompson, S. N. Blair, J. Dziura, and P. Hart, "The utility of the Digi-walker step counter to assess daily physical activity patterns," Medicine and science in sports and exercise, vol. 32, pp. S481-S488, 2000.
 C. Tudor-Locke and D. R. Bassett Jr, "How many steps/day are enough?," Sports Medicine, vol. 34, pp. 1-8, 2004.
 T. Sohn, A. Varshavsky, A. LaMarca, M. Y. Chen, T. Choudhury, I. Smith, S. Consolvo, J. Hightower, W. G. Griswold, and E. De Lara, "Mobility detection using everyday GSM traces," in UbiComp 2006: Ubiquitous Computing, ed: Springer, 2006, pp. 212-224.
 S. Consolvo, D. W. McDonald, T. Toscos, M. Y. Chen, J. Froehlich, B. Harrison, P. Klasnja, A. LaMarca, L. LeGrand, and R. Libby, "Activity sensing in the wild: a field trial of ubifit garden," in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2008, pp. 1797-1806.
 J. Maitland, S. Sherwood, L. Barkhuus, I. Anderson, M. Hall, B. Brown, M. Chalmers, and H. Muller, "Increasing the awareness of daily activity levels with pervasive computing," in Pervasive Health Conference and Workshops, 2006, 2006, pp. 1-9.
 Apple. (2013, 15 May 2013). Nike + iPod. Available: http://www.apple.com/ipod/nike/run.html
 Apple. (2012, 15 May 2013). Nike + iPod Sport Kit. Available: http://store.apple.com/au/product/MA365ZM/F/nike-ipod-sport-kit
 XBOX.com. (2013, 12 May 2013). XBOX 360 + Kinect. Available: http://www.xbox.com/en-AU/kinect
 R. Altamimi, "Motivating Kids to Exercise Through Active Video Games," Master of Information Technology (Advanced), Faculty of Science and Information Technology, School of Design, Communication and IT, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, 2012.
 M. N. K. Boulos, "Xbox 360 Kinect Exergames for Health " Games for Health Journal, vol. 1, pp. 326-330, October 5, 2012.
 T. Cook, G. Couch, T. Couch, W. Kim, and W. Boonn, "Using the Microsoft Kinect for Patient Size Estimation and Radiation Dose Normalization: Proof of Concept and Initial Validation," Journal of Digital Imaging, pp. 1-6, 2013/01/01 2013.
 A. Weiss, D. Hirshberg, and M. J. Black, "Home 3D body scans from noisy image and range data," in Computer Vision (ICCV), 2011 IEEE International Conference on, 2011, pp. 1951-1958.
 T. Jing, Z. Jin, L. Ligang, P. Zhigeng, and Y. Hao, "Scanning 3D Full Human Bodies Using Kinects," Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 18, pp. 643-650, 2012.
 Z. Ren, J. Meng, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, "Robust hand gesture recognition with kinect sensor," in Proceedings of the 19th ACM international conference on Multimedia, 2011, pp. 759-760.
 V. Frati and D. Prattichizzo, "Using Kinect for hand tracking and rendering in wearable haptics," in World Haptics Conference (WHC), 2011 IEEE, 2011, pp. 317-321.
 XBOX.com. (2013, 11 May 2013). Kinect PlayFit. Available: http://www.xbox.com/en-US/kinect/kinect-play-fit