Measuring of Urban Sustainability in Town Planners Practice
Physical urban form is recognized to be the media for human transactions. It directly influences the travel demand of people in a specific urban area and the amount of energy used for transportation. Distorted, sprawling form often creates sustainability problems in urban areas. It is declared in EU strategic planning documents that compact urban form and mixed land use pattern must be given the main focus to achieve better sustainability in urban areas, but the methods to measure and compare these characteristics are still not clear. This paper presents the simple methods to measure the spatial characteristics of urban form by analyzing the location and distribution of objects in an urban environment. The extended CA (cellular automata) model is used to simulate urban development scenarios.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1087580Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2190
 A. Haapio, “Towards sustainable urban communities,” inEnvironmental Impact Assessment Review,vol. 32 (1), 2012, pp. 165-169.
 F. Flourentzou, “Measures of Urban Sustainability,” inComputer Modelling for Sustainable Urban Design: Physical Principles, Methods and Applications, 2012, pp. 177-202.
 W.W. Kropp, J.K. Lein, “Assessing the Geographic Expression of Urban Sustainability: A Scenario Based Approach Incorporating Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis,” in Sustainability,vol. 4, 2012, pp. 2348-2365.
 R.K. Singh, H. Murty, S. Gupta, A. Dikshit, “An overview of sustainability assessment methodologies,” inEcological Indicators,vol. 15 (1), 2012, pp. 281-299.
 T. Söderman, L. Kopperoinen, P. Shemeikka, V. Yli-Pelkonen, “Ecosystem services criteria for sustainable development in urban regions,” inJournal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, vol.14, 2012.
 M. Chester, S. Pincetl, Z. Elizabeth, W. Eisenstein, J. Matute, “Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce lifecycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals,” in Environmental Research Letters,vol. 8, 2013.
 I. Theodoridou, A.M. Papadopoulos, M. Hegger, “A feasibility evaluation tool for sustainable cities–A case study for Greece,” inEnergy Policy,vol. 44, 2012, pp. 207-216.
 K.M. Davidson, J. Kellett, L. Wilson, S. Pullen, “Assessing urban sustainability from a social democratic perspective: a thematic approach,” inLocal Environment,vol. 17, 2012, pp. 57-73.
 M. Roberts, T. LIoyd-jones, “Mixed Uses and Urban Design,”in Reclaiming the City: Mixed Use Development, 2013, pp. 149.
 M. Deakin, G. Mitchell, P. Nijkamp, R. Vreeker, “Sustainable urban development volume 2: the environmental assessment methods,” Routledge, 2013.
 J.P. Duarte, J.N. Beirão, N. Montenegro, J. Gil, “City Induction: a model for formulating, generating, and evaluating urban designs,” in Digital Urban Modeling and Simulation, Springer, 2012, pp. 73-98.
 N. Chrysoulakis, M. Lopes, R. San José, C.S.B. Grimmond, M.B. Jones, V. Magliulo, J.E.M. Klostermann, A. Synnefa, Z. Mitraka, E.A. Castro, A. González, R. Vogt, T. Vesala, D. Spano, G. Pigeon, P. Freer-Smith, T. Staszewski, N. Hodges, G. Mills, C. Cartalis, “Sustainable urban metabolism as a link between bio-physical sciences and urban planning: The BRIDGE project,” inLandscape and Urban Planning,vol. 112, 2013, pp. 100-117.
 A. Sharifi, A. Murayama, “A critical review of seven selected neighborhood sustainability assessment tools,” inEnvironmental Impact Assessment Review, 2012.
 J. Gil, J.P. Duarte, “Tools for evaluating the sustainability of urban design: a review,” inProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers,2012.
 M.J. Power, P. Neville, E. Devereux, A. Haynes, C. Barnes, “Why bother seeing the world for real?: Google Street View and the representation of a stigmatised neighbourhood,” inNew Media & Society, 2012.
 D.K. Miller, “Using Google Street View to Audit the Built Environment: Inter-rater Reliability Results,” inAnnals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 45, 2013, pp. 108-112.
 M.G. Riera Perez, E. Rey, “A multi-criteria approach to compare urban renewal scenarios for an existing neighborhood. Case study in Lausanne (Switzerland),” inBuilding and Environment, 2013.
 P.H. Verburg, P.P. Schot, M.J. Dijst, A. Veldkamp, “Land use change modelling: current practice and research priorities,” inGeoJournal,vol. 61, 2004, pp. 309-324.
 K. Al-Ahmadi, L. See, A. Heppenstall, “Validating Spatial Patterns of Urban Growth from a Cellular Automata Model,”in Emerging Applications of Cellular Automata, ed. A. Salcido, 2013.
 M.J. Namini, H. Shamskooshki, M. Momeni, “Application of Modeling Urban Growth with Cellular Automata in Spatial Planning.”
 M. Batty, “Cellular automata and urban form: a primer,” inJournal of the American Planning Association,vol. 63, 1997, pp. 266-274.
 I. Santé, A.M. García, D. Miranda, R. Crecente, “Cellular automata models for the simulation of real-world urban processes: A review and analysis,” inLandscape and Urban Planning,vol. 96, 2010, pp. 108-122.
 A. Páez, D.M. Scott, “Spatial statistics for urban analysis: a review of techniques with examples,” inGeoJournal,vol. 61, 2005, pp. 53-67.