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European Ecological Network Natura 2000 - Opportunities and Threats

Authors: Adam Niewiadomski

Abstract:

The research objective of the project and article “European Ecological Network Natura 2000 – opportunities and threats” Natura 2000 sites constitute a form of environmental protection, several legal problems are likely to result. Most controversially, certain sites will be subject to two regimes of protection: as national parks and as Natura 2000 sites. This dualism of the legal regulation makes it difficult to perform certain legal obligations related to the regimes envisaged under each form of environmental protection. Which regime and which obligations resulting from the particular form of environmental protection have priority and should prevail? What should be done if these obligations are contradictory? Furthermore, an institutional problem consists in that no public administration authority has the power to resolve legal conflicts concerning the application of a particular regime on a given site. There are also no criteria to decide priority and superiority of one form of environmental protection over the other. Which regulations are more important, those that pertain to national parks or to Natura 2000 sites? In the light of the current regulations, it is impossible to give a decisive answer to these questions. The internal hierarchy of forms of environmental protection has not been determined, and all such forms should be treated equally.

Keywords: Natura 2000, European Ecological Network.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1087552

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References:


[1] Consolidated version in Journal of Laws of 2009, No. 151, item 1220, as amended.
[2] Pursuant to Article 6 sec. 1 of the Environmental Protection Act, "Forms of environmental protection include the following: 1) national parks; 2) nature reserves; 3) landscape parks; 4) landscape protection sites; 5) Natura 2000 sites; 6) protected nature sites; 7) data collection sites; 8) sites used for ecological purposes; 9) nature and landscape complexes; 10) protection sites of plant, animal and fungal species.".
[3] The following literature related to Natura 2000 sites has been used in this publication: A. Bołtromiuk (editor), Europejska Sieć Ekologiczna Natura 2000 jako nowy element otoczenia polskiej wsi i rolnictwa (Natura 2000 European Ecological Network as a New Element of Surroundings in Polish Rural Areas and Agriculture), Warsaw 2010; A. Bołtromiuk, M. Kłodziński (editor), Natura 2000 jako czynnik zrównoważonego rozwoju obszarów wiejskich regionu Zielonych Płuc Polski (Natura 2000 as Sustainable Development Factor of Rural Areas in the Green Lungs of Poland region), Warsaw 2011; J. Ciechanowicz- McLean, Międzynarodowe prawo ochrony środowiska (International Environmental Protection Law), Warsaw 2001; J. Ciechanowicz- McLean, Ochrona środowiska w działalności gospodarczej (Environmental Protection in Business Activity), Warsaw 2003; J. Ciechanowicz-McLean, Z. Bukowski, B. Rakoczy, Prawo ochrony środowiska: komentarz (Environmental Protection Law: Commentary), Warsaw 2008; EC COM 431 final: Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Financing Natura 2000, 2004; J. Engel, Natura 2000 w ocenach oddziaływania przedsięwzięć na środowisko (Natura 2000 in Environmental Impact Assessments), Warsaw 2010; S. Gantioler, P. Brink, S. Bassi, M. Kettunen, A. McConville, M. Rayment, Financing Natura 2000 – Financing needs and socio-economic benefits resulting from investment in the network, 2010; Natura 2000: szanse i zagrożenia (Natura 2000: Chances and Threats), Instytut Problemów Współczesnej Cywilizacji im. Marka Dietricha (Marek Dietrich Contemporary Civilization Problems Institute), Warsaw 2010; K. Sundseth, P. Creed, Natura 2000: ochrona różnorodności biologicznej Europy (Natura 2000: Protecting Europe’s Biodiversity), Luxembourg 2009; S.C.F. de Piérola, Natura 2000 i społeczeństwo: instrumenty komunikacji społecznej w zarządzaniu Siecią Natura 2000 (Natura 2000 and the Society: Instruments of Social Communication in Management of Natura 2000 Network), Warsaw 2009; P. Rutkowski, Natura 2000 w leśnictwie (Natura 2000 in Forestry), Warsaw 2009; B. Rakoczy, Ograniczenie praw i wolności jednostki ze względu na ochronę środowiska w Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (Limitation of the Individual Rights and Freedoms due to Environmental Protection in the Polish Constitution), Toruń 2009; B. Rakoczy, Komentarz do ustawy o zapobieganiu szkodom w środowisku i ich naprawie (Commentary to the Act on Preventing Damages to the Natural Environment and Redressing Them), Warsaw 2008; B. Wierzbowski, B. Rakoczy, Podstawy prawa ochrony środowiska (Basis of the Environmental Protection Law), Warsaw 2007.
[4] OJ L 103, 1979, p. 1, as amended, referred to as "birds directive".
[5] OJ L 206, 1992, p. 7, as amended, referred to as "habitats directive".
[6] C-6/04 European Communities v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
[7] Journal of Laws of 2009 No. 33, item 262, as amended.
[8] § 3 item 2 b-c of the Regulation of the Minister of Environmental Protection of 17 February 2010 in the matter of preparing the draft protection action plan for Natura 2000 sites – Journal of Laws of 2010 No. 34, item 186.
[9] Journal of Laws of 2003 No. 80, item 717, as amended.
[10] Journal of Laws of 2003 No. 80, item 717, as amended.
[11] See Annex II to Council Regulation (EC) No. 73/2009; Regulation of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 11 March 2010 in the matter of minimum standards (Journal of Laws No. 39, item 211); announcement of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 19 March 2009 in the matter of the list of requirements set forth in the EU regulations, taking into account the national provisions implementing those regulations (M.P. of 2009 No. 17, item 224); announcement of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 17 March 2010 on the change of the list of requirements set forth in the EU regulations, taking into account the national provisions implementing those regulations (M.P. of 2010 No. 16, item 169); announcement of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 28 December 2010 on the change of the list of requirements set forth in the EU regulations, taking into account the national provisions implementing those regulations (M.P. of 2011 No. 2, item 20); announcement of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 16 March 2011 on the change of the list of requirements set forth in the EU regulations, taking into account the national provisions implementing those regulations (M.P. of 2011 No. 27, item 299). At present, this situation is unclear and at least two different legal interpretations are permitted.
[12] Consolidated version in Journal of Laws of 2008, No. 170, item 1051, as amended.
[13] OJ L 316, 2009, p. 65, as amended.
[14] OJ L 30, 2009, p. 16, as amended.
[15] Consolidated version in Journal of Laws of 2008, No. 25, item 129, as amended.
[16] Polish Supreme Court Ruling of 25 February 2009, III CSK 546/08.
[17] Polish Supreme Court Ruling of 25 February 2009, III CSK 565/08.