Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31105
Attachment Styles of Children Raised in Nursery vs. Those Who are Raised in the Family in Iran

Authors: Narges Razeghi


In studies on psychological health and children-s personality development and in researches on emotional distresses, children-s behavioral disorders associated with mother deprivation, are known as the major cause of mental disorders. Therefore, for identification of children-s attachment styles in nursery-s children are of significant importance. For this purpose, to compare the attachment styles between children of nursery with those provided care by their families, the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT) of Slough and et al was administered on 72 children (36 in nursery and 36 family-cared). The results indicated, almost half of children in both groups have insecure attachment styles. Tendency ratio of both groups of children towards Secure and Ambivalent Insecure styles are almost the same. However the avoidant style of attachment in children of nursery is more than those provided care by their families. The children under family care compared to the children of nursery, in the situations of separation from their mothers in the first day of school and sleeping in their room, have shown more self reliance.

Keywords: Children, Nursery, attachment style, Separation Anxiety Test (SAT), Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1555


[1] Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. Vol. I: Attachment. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.
[2] Laible,Deborah J., Thompson, Ross A. (2000). Mother-Child Discourse, Attachment Security, Shared Positive Affect, and Early Conscience Development. Child Development. Volume 71, Issue 5: Pages: 1424-1440.
[3] Niccols, Alison. (2008). 'Right from the Start': randomized trial comparing an attachment group intervention to supportive home visiting. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Volume 49 Issue 7, Pages 754 - 764].
[4] Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and Loss. Vol: II Separation, Antiety and Anger. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.
[5] Ainthworth, M. D. (1973). The development of infant - mother attachment . in B. Call Well & H. Ricciuti (Eds), Review of Child Development Research (Vol: 3). Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
[6] Ainthworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E. & wall, s. (1978). patterns of attachment: apsychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum.
[7] Mikulincer. Mario. (1998). Adult attachment style and affect regulation: strategic variations in self-appraisals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 2, 420-435.
[8] Cassidy, J. (1990). Connection between family and peer relationships. Paper presented at the preconference on peer relationships. Meeting of the society for research in child development, Seattle.
[9] Cassidy, J., Marvin, R. S. (1992). Attachment organization in preschool children: Procedures and coding manual.
[10] Cassidy, J. & Berlin, J. (1994). The insecure/ambivalent patterns of attachment: Theory and research. Child development, 65, 977-991.
[11] Feeney, J.A., & Noller, P.(1996). Adult attachment. Thousand Oaks, CA: sage.
[12] Feeney, J.A., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1996). The effects of adult attachment and presence of romantic partners on physiological responses to stress. Journal of personality and social psychology, 70, 255-270.
[13] Mayseless, O. (2004). Home-leaving to military service: Attachment concerns, transfer of attachment functions from parents to peers, and adjustment. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 533-558.
[14] Granot, D., & Mayseless, O. (2001) Attachment security and adjustment to school in middle childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 530-541.
[15] Scharf, M., & Mayseless, O. (2001). The capacity for romantic intimacy: Exploring the contribution of best friend and marital and parental relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 379-399.
[16] Everett Waters, Susan Merrick, Dominique Treboux, Judith Crowell, Leah Albersheim. (2000). Attachment Security in Infancy and Early Adulthood: A Twenty-Year Longitudinal Study. Child Development. Volume 71, Issue 3, Pages: 684-689.
[17] Waters, Everett, Weinfield, Nancy S., Hamilton, Claire E. (2000). The Stability of Attachment Security from Infancy to Adolescence and Early Adulthood: General Discussion. Child Development. Volume 71, Issue 3: 703-706.
[18] Cooper, M. Lynne. Shaver, Philip, R., & Collins, Nancy L. (1998). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 5, 1380-1397.
[19] Fisher, L; Ames, E; Chisholm, K & Savdie, L. (1997). International Journal of Behavior Development. Vol 20, 63-82.
[20] Thompson, Susan, Lenore. (2001). The social skills of previously institutionalized children adopted from Romania. Dissertation Abstracts International. Section B: The sciences and engineering. Vol 61 (7-B), 3906.
[21] Marcovitch, Sh; Goldberg, s; gold, A; Washington, J. (1997). Determinants of behavioural problems in Romanian children adopted in Ontario. International Journal of Behavioral Development. United Kingdom: Psychological Press, Vol 20(1), 17-31.
[22] Chisholm, K. (1998). A three year follow up of attachment and indiscriminate friendliness in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Child development, Vol 69 (4), 1092-1106.
[23] Panayiota Vorria, Zaira Papaligoura, Judy Dunn, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Howard Steele, Antigoni Kontopoulou, and Yiasemi Sarafidou. (2003). Early experiences and attachment relationships of Greek infants raised in residential group care. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Volume 44 Issue 8, Pages 1208 - 1220.
[24] Miri Scharf. (2001). A "Natural Experiment" in Childrearing Ecologies and Adolescents' Attachment and Separation Representations. Child Development. Volume 72, Issue 1,Pages: 236-251.
[25] Rubin, Kenneth. H. (1998). Social and Emotional Development From a Cultural Perspective. Developmental Psychology. 34, 4 , 611-615.
[26] Slough, N. M., Goyette, M., Greenberg, M. T. (1988). Scoring indices for the seattle Version of the separetion anxiety test. University of washington.
[27] Rutter. Michael, Colvert, Emma., Kreppner , Jana., Beckett , Celia., Castle, Jenny., Groothues, Christine., Hawkins, Amanda., O'Connor , Thomas. G., Stevens, Suzanne. E. and Sonuga-Barke, Edmund.J.S. (2006). Early adolescent outcomes for institutionally-deprived and nondeprived adoptees. I: Disinhibited attachment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Volume 48 Issue 1: 17 - 30.
[28] Moss, Ellen; Cyr, Chantal; Bureau, Jean-François; Tarabulsy, George. M & Dubois-Comtois, Karine. (2005). Stability of Attachment During the Preschool Period. Developmental Psychology. 41, 5, 773-783.
[29] Erel, Osnat; Oberman, Yael. & Yirmiya, Nurit. (2000). Maternal Versus Nonmaternal Care and Seven Domains of Children's Development. Psychological Bulletin. 126, 5, 727-747.
[30] Mazaheri, M. A. (1999). Attachment from a systematic view point: A study in Iranian families. Unedited P.H.D thesis. London University.
[31] Khanjani, Z. (1999). Study of relation in temporary separations during day time and signs of sickness in mothers by attachment establishment & emergence of behavioraly social problems in preschool level .Unedited P.H.D thesis. College of Psychology & Education. Tehran University.
[32] Nina Koren-Karie. (2001). Mothers' attachment representations and choice of infant care: center care vs. home. Infant and Child Development. Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages: 117-127.
[33] Yvonne M. Caldera, Sybil Hart. (2004). Exposure to child care, parenting style and attachment security. Infant and Child Development.Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages: 21-33.
[34] Lieselotte Ahnert, Megan R. Gunnar, Michael E. Lamb, Martina Barthel. (2004). Transition to Child Care: Associations with Infant- Mother Attachment, Infant Negative Emotion, and Cortisol Elevations. Child Development. Volume 75, Issue 3, Pages: 639-650.