Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31105
Pomelo Peel: Agricultural Waste for Biosorption of Cadmium Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Wanna Saikaew, Pairat Kaewsarn, Wuthikorn Saikaew


The ability of pomelo peel, a natural biosorbent, to remove Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution by biosorption was investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25 °C. The influence of solution pH, initial cadmium ion concentrations and contact times were evaluated. Cadmium ion removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased from pH 1 to pH 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ion removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model, with a maximum biosorption capacity of 21.83 mg/g. The biosorption was relatively quick, (approx. 20 min). Biosorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The result showed that pomelo peel was effective as a biosorbent for removing cadmium ions from aqueous solution. It is a low cost material that shows potential to be applied in wastewater technology for remediation of heavy metal contamination.

Keywords: biosorption, pomelo peel, Cadmium ions

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3243


[1] C.W. Cheung, J.F. Porter and G. Mckay, "Sorption kinetic analysis for the removal of cadmium ions from effluents using bone char," Water Resource., vol. 35, pp. 605-612, 2001.
[2] A.B. Prez-Marin, V. Meseguer Zapata, J.F. Ortuno, M. Aguilar, J. Saez and M. Llorens, "Removal of cadmium from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto orange waste," Hazardous Materials., vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 122-131, 2007.
[3] C.C.V. Cruz, C.A. Antonio, C.A. Henriques, and A.S. Luna, "Kinetic modeling and equilibrium studies during cadmium biosorption by dead Sargassum sp. biomass," Bioresource Technol., vol. 91, pp. 249-257,
[4] E. Malkoc and Y. Nuhoglu, 2005. "Investigations of nickel (II) removal from aqueous solutions using tea factory waste," Hazardous Material., vol. 127, pp. 120-128, 2004.
[5] C. Guiqiu, Z. Guangming, T. Lin, D. Chunyan, J. Xiaoyun, H. Guohe, L. Hongliang and S. Guoli, "Cadmium removal from simulated wastewater to biomass byproduct of Lentinus edodes," Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, pp. 7034-7040, 2008.
[6] L. Xiaomin, T. Yanru and X. Zhexian, "Study on the preparation of Orange peel cellulose adsorbents and biosorption of Cd2+ from aqueous solution," Separation Purification and Technology, vol. 55, pp. 69-75, 2007.
[7] M.I. Kefala, A.I .Zouboulis and K.A. Matis, "Biosorption of cadmium ions by actinomycetes and separation by flotation," Environmental Pollution., vol. 104, pp. 283-293, 1999.
[8] A. Selatnia, M.Z. Bakhti, A. Madani, L. Kertous and Mansouri, Biosorption de Cd2+ from aqueous solution by a NAOH-treated bacterial dead streptomyces rimosus biomass," Hydrometallurgy., vol. 75, pp. 11-24, 2004.
[9] S.S. Ahluwalia, and D.Goyal, "Removal of heavy metals from waste tea leaves from aqueous solution," Engineering of Life Science., vol. 5, pp. 158-162, 2005.
[10] B. Volesk, "Review Biosorption and me," Water Research., vol. 41, pp. 4017 - 4029, 2007.
[11] A.B. Prez-Marin, A. Ballester, F. Gonzlez, M.L. Blzquez, J.A. Muoz, J. Sez and V. Meseguer Zapata, "Study of cadmium, zinc and lead biosorption by orange wastes using the subsequent addition method," Bioresource Technology., vol. 99, no. 17, pp. 8101-8106, 2008.
[12] G. Bla'zquez, F. Herna'inz, M.Calero and L.F. Ruiz-Nu'n˜ez, "Removal of cadmium ions with olive stones: the effect of somes parameters," Process Biochemistry., vol. 40, pp. 2649-2654, 2005.
[13] S. Asma, A.M. Washeed, and I. Muhammed, "Removal and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solution using papaya wood as a new biosorbent," Separation and Purification Technology., vol. 45, pp. 25- 31, 2005.
[14] H. Bena─▒ssa, "Screening of new sorbent materials for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions," Hazardous Materials., vol. 132, 189-195, 2006.
[15] S. Schiewer and S.B. Patil, "Pectin-rich fruit wastes as biosorbents for heavy metal removal: Equilibrium and kinetics," Bioresource Technology., vol. 99, pp. 1896-1903, 2008.
[16] G.H. Pino, L.M.S. De Mesquita, M.L. Torem and G.A.S.Pinto, "Biosorption of cadmium by green coconut shell powder," Minerals Engineering., vol. 19, pp. 380-387, 2006.
[17] E. Augustine and H. Yuh-Shan, "Effect of pH on cadmium biosorption by coconut copra mea," Hazardous Materials., vol. 139, pp. 356-362, 2007.
[18] F. Pagnanelli, S. Mainelli, F. Veglio and L. Toro, "Heavy metal removal by olive pomace: biosorbent characterization and equilibrium modeling," Chemistry Engineering of Science., vol. 58, pp. 4709-4717, 2003.
[19] Q. Yu and P. Kaewsarn, "Biosorption of copper(II) from aqueous solution by pre-treated biomass of marine alga Padina sp.," Chemosphere., vol. 47, pp. 1081-1085, 2002.
[20] Q. Yu and P. Kaewsarn, "A Model for pH Dependent Equilibrium of Heavy Metal Biosorption," Korean Journal of Chemistry Engineering., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 753-757, 1999.
[21] Q. Yu and P. Kaewsarn, "Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Pre-treated Biomass of Marine Macro-Alga Padina sp.," Environental Pollution., vol. 112, pp. 1-5, 2000.
[22] Z.R. Holan, B. Volesky and I. Prasetyo "Biosorption of cadmium by biomass of marine algae," Biotechnology and Bioengineering., vol. 41, pp. 819-825, 1993.
[23] J.S. Chang, R. Law and C. Chang, "Biosorption of lead copper and cadmium by biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU 21," Water Resource., vol. 31, pp. 1651-1658, 1997.
[24] S. Bunluesin, M. Kruatrachue and P. Pokethitiyook, "Batch and continuous packed column studies of cadmium biosorption by Hydrilla verticillata biomass," Bioscience and Bioengineering., vol. 103, pp. 509-513, 2007.
[25] M. Junxia and Xiaomei, "Cystine-modified biomass for Cd (II) and Pb (II) biosorption," Hazardous Materials., vol. 143, 277-284, 2007.
[26] B. Stephen and N. Sulochana, "Carbonised jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd (II) from aqueous solution," Bioresource and Technology., vol. 94, pp. 49-52, 2004.
[27] V. Christian, F. Henri, P. Catherine and D. Alain, "Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, from aqueous solutions, by adsorption onto sawdust of Pinus sylvestri," Hazardous Materials., vol. 105, 121-142, 2003.
[28] S. Schiewer and B. Santosh, "Modeling the effect of pH on biosorption of heavy metals by citrus peels," Hazardous Materials., vol. 157, pp. 8-17, 2008.
[29] S. Schiewer and B. Santosh, "Pectin-rich fruit wastes as biosorbents for heavy metal removal: Equilibrium and kinetics," Bioresource Technology., vol. 40, pp. 1896-1903, 2007.
[30] P. Kaewsarn and Q. Yu, "Cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by pre-treated biomass of marine macro-alga Padina sp." Environmental Pollution. vol. 112: pp. 1-5. 2001.
[31] J. Yu, M.Tong, X. Sun and B. Li, "Cystin-modified for Cd(II) and Pb(II) biosorption," Hazardous Materials., 143, pp. 277-284, 2007.
[32] B. Benguella and H. Benaissa, "Cadmium removal from aqueous solution by chitin: kinetic and equilibrium studies," Water Resource., vol. 36, pp. 2463-2474, 2002.
[33] S. Schiewer, B. Volesky, "Modeling of the proton-metal ion exchange in biosorption" Environmental Science and Technology., vol. 29, pp. 3049-3058, 1995.