Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30836
High-rate Wastewater Treatment by a Shaft-type Activated Sludge Reactor

Authors: Debabrata Mazumder, Subrata Hait


A shaft-type activated sludge reactor has been developed in order to study the feasibility of high-rate wastewater treatment. The reactor having volume of about 14.5 L was operated with the acclimated mixed activated sludge under batch and continuous mode using a synthetic wastewater as feed. The batch study was performed with varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 1000–3500 mg·L-1 for a batch period up to 9 h. The kinetic coefficients: Ks, k, Y and kd were obtained as 2040.2 mg·L-1 and 0.105 h-1, 0.878 and 0.0025 h-1 respectively from Monod-s approach. The continuous study showed a stable and steady state operation for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h and influent COD of about 1000 mg·L-1. A maximum COD removal efficiency of about 80% was attained at a COD loading rate and food-tomicroorganism (F/M) ratio (COD basis) of 3.42 kg·m-3d-1 and 1.0 kg·kg-1d-1 respectively under a HRT of 8 h. The reactor was also found to handle COD loading rate and F/M ratio of 10.8 kg·m-3d-1 and 2.20 kg·kg-1d-1 respectively showing a COD removal efficiency of about 46%.

Keywords: activated sludge process, shaft-type reactor, highrate treatment, carbonaceous wastewater

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3277


[1] D. Mazumder and A. K. Dikshit, "Applications of the deep-shaft activated sludge process in wastewater treatment," Int. J. Environ. Pollut., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 266-272, 2002.
[2] D. H. Bolton, D. A. Hines, and J. P. Bouchard, "The application of the ICI deep-shaft process to industrial effluents," in Proc. 31st Industrial Waste Conf., Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, 1976, pp. 344-351.
[3] F. T. Tran and D. Gannon, "Deep shaft high-rate aerobic digestion: Laboratory and pilot plant performance," Water Pollut. Res. J. Can., vol. 16, pp. 71-89, 1981.
[4] H. Kubota, Y. Hosono, and K. Fujie, "Characteristics evaluations of ICI air-lift type deep shaft aerator," J. Chem. Eng. Jpn., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 319-325, 1978.
[5] F. L. Schmit, P. M. Thayer, and D. T. Redmon, "Diffused air in deeptank aeration," in Proc. 30th Industrial Waste Conf., Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, 1975, pp. 576-589.
[6] J. Lock, "Deep shaft," Water Eng. Manag., vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 57-62, 1982.
[7] M. L. Hemming, "General biological aspects of waste-water treatment including the deep-shaft process," Water Pollut. Control, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 312-325, 1979.
[8] M. L. Hemming, J. C. Ousby, D. R. Plowright, and J. Walker, "Deep shaft: Latest position," Water Pollut. Control, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 441- 451, 1977.
[9] G. C. Cox, V. H. Lewin, J. T. West, W. J. Brignal, D. L. Readhead, J. G. Robert, N. K. Shah, and C. B. Waller, "Use of the deep-shaft process in uprating and extending existing sewage-treatment works," Water Pollut. Control, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 70-86, 1980.
[10] M. Gavrilescu and M. Macoveanu, "Process engineering in biological aerobic waste-water treatment," Acta Biotechnol., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 111-145, 1999.
[11] W. J. Brignal and G. C. Cox, "Deep shaft method of sewage treatment," Trib. CEBEDEAU, vol. 32, pp. 383-395, 1979.
[12] D. S. Sandford and T. Gallo, "Application of deep shaft technology to the treatment of food processing wastewater," in Environmental Protection Technology Series EPA 600/2-78-188, US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979, pp. 341-358.
[13] T. Gallo and D. S. Sandford, "Application of deep shaft technology to the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters," AIChE Symp. Ser., Water - 1979, vol. 76, no. 197, pp. 288-300, 1980.
[14] P. G. Daly and C. C. Shen, "The deep shaft biological treatment process," in Proc. 43rd Industrial Waste Conf., Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, 1989, pp. 479-488.
[15] B. P. Le Clair, "Performance monitoring program: Molson-s brewery deep shaft treatment system," in Proc. 39th Industrial Waste Conf., Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, 1984, pp. 257-268.
[16] J. Walker and G. W. Wilkinson, "The treatment of industrial effluents using the deep shaft process," Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 326, no. 1, pp. 181-191, 1979.
[17] Y. Ren and M. Zhang, "Deep shaft aeration process for treating saponified wastewater from propylene oxide plant," Shanghai Environ. Sci. (Shanghai Huanjing Kexue), vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 32-34 (in Chinese), 1998.
[18] F. T. Tran and R. D. Tyagi, "Mesophilic and thermophilic digestion of municipal sludge in a deep-shaft U-shaped bioreactor," Water Sci. Technol., vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 205-215, 1990.
[19] S. Hait and D. Mazumder, "Performance evaluation of a hybrid bioreactor for treating high organics containing wastewater," in Proc. Int. Conf. on Advances in Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Anna University, Chennai, India, 2005, pp. 209-218.
[20] D. Mazumder, S. Mukherjee, and P. K. Ray, "Treatment of distillery anaerobic effluent in a hybrid biological reactor," Int. J. Environ. Pollut., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 43-56, 2008.
[21] D. Mazumder, S. Mukherjee, and P. K. Ray, "Treatment of tannery wastewater in a hybrid biological reactor," Int. J. Environ. Pollut., vol. 34, nos. 1-4, pp. 43-56, 2008.
[22] O. C. Collins and M. D. Elder, "Experience in operating the deep-shaft activated sludge process," Water Pollut. Control, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 272- 285, 1980.
[23] O. C. Collins and M. D. Elder, "Experience in operating the deep shaft activated sludge process," Prog. Water Tech., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 671- 684, 1980.
[24] R. E. Speece, D. Gallagher, C. Krick, and R. Thomson, "Pilot performance of deep U-tubes," Water Sci. Technol., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 395-407, 1981.
[25] M. S. Robinson, "A pilot-plant evaluation of a deep shaft linked to conventional aeration without inter-stage settlement to give a fullynitrified effluent," Water Pollut. Control, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 58-70, 1984.
[26] N. Shimizu, T. Sumitani, Y. Masaki, Y. Odawara, and S. Hisatomi, "High-BOD loading treatment using large-scale deep aeration tanks," J. Ferment. Tech., vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 277-284, 1984.
[27] R. A. Irwin, W. J. Brignal, and M. A. Biss, "Experiences with the deepshaft process at Tilbury," Water Environ. J., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 280-286, 1989.
[28] R. P. Favre, "Use of a deep shaft for the waste water treatment plant of Orgamol SA," in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces, September 11-14, 1990, Minneapolis, Minnesota. ASCE, New York, 1991, pp. 756-764.
[29] A. G. Boon and V. K. Thomas, "Intensification of the activated-sludge process," J. Chart. Inst. Water Environ. Manage., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 357-367, 1998.
[30] APHA, AWWA, and WEF, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th ed., Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, 1995.
[31] Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Revised by G. Tchobanoglous and F. L. Burton, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1991.
[32] L. D. Benefield and C. W. Randall, Biological Process Design for Wastewater Treatment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1980.
[33] C. P. L. Grady and H. C. Lim, Biological Wastewater Treatment. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1980.
[34] A. A. Elkebir, Application of crossflow filtration for biomass retention in aeration tanks. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK, 1991.
[35] A. W. Lawrence, "Modeling and simulation of slurry biological reactors," in Mathematical Modelling for Water Pollution Control Processes, T. M. Keinath and M. P. Wanielista, Eds. Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers Inc., 1975, pp. 221-270.
[36] M. Henze, P. Harremoës, J. L. Jansen, and E. Arvin, Wastewater Treatment: Biological and Chemical Process. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002.
[37] A. F. Gaudy and E. T. Gaudy, Microbiology for Environmental Scientists and Engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1980.
[38] T. D. Reynolds and J. T. Yang, "Model of the completely mixed activated sludge process," in Proc. 21st Industrial Waste Conf., Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, 1966, pp. 696-713.
[39] R. Srinivasaraghavan and A. F. Gaudy, "Operational performance of an activated sludge process with constant sludge feedback," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1946-1960, 1975.
[40] J. Gancarczyk, Wastewater Treatment with Activated Sludge. Warszawa: Arkady, 1969 (in Polish).
[41] D. Jenkins, M. G. Richard, and G. T. Daigger, Manual on the Causes and Control of Activated Sludge Bulking and Foaming. Boca Raton, New York: Lewis Publishers, 1993.
[42] J. C. Palm, D. Jenkins, and D. S. Parker, "Relationship between organic loading, dissolved oxygen concentration and sludge settleability in the completely-mixed activated sludge process," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 2484-2506, 1980.
[43] O. E. Albertson, "The control of bulking sludges: From the early innovators to current practice," J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 172-182, 1987.
[44] J. Rensink and H. J. G. W. Donker, "The effect of contact tank operation on bulking sludge and biosorption processes," Water Sci. Technol., vol. 23, nos. 4-6, pp. 857-866, 1991.
[45] B. Cywinski, S. Gdula, E. Kempa, J. Kurbiel, and H. Ploszanski, Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Warsaw: Arkady, 1972 (in Polish).
[46] W. Janczukowicz, M. Szewczyk, M. Krzemieniewski, and J. Pesta, "Settling properties of activated sludge from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)," Polish J. Env. Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 15-20, 2001.