Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31103
Extraction of Craniofacial Landmarks for Preoperative to Intraoperative Registration
Abstract:This paper presents the automated methods employed for extracting craniofacial landmarks in white light images as part of a registration framework designed to support three neurosurgical procedures. The intraoperative space is characterised by white light stereo imaging while the preoperative plan is performed on CT scans. The registration aims at aligning these two modalities to provide a calibrated environment to enable image-guided solutions. The neurosurgical procedures can then be carried out by mapping the entry and target points from CT space onto the patient-s space. The registration basis adopted consists of natural landmarks (eye corner and ear tragus). A 5mm accuracy is deemed sufficient for these three procedures and the validity of the selected registration basis in achieving this accuracy has been assessed by simulation studies. The registration protocol is briefly described, followed by a presentation of the automated techniques developed for the extraction of the craniofacial features and results obtained from tests on the AR and FERET databases. Since the three targeted neurosurgical procedures are routinely used for head injury management, the effect of bruised/swollen faces on the automated algorithms is assessed. A user-interactive method is proposed to deal with such unpredictable circumstances.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1082093Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1162
 J. M. Fitzpatrick, D. L. G. Hill and C. R. Maurer Jr, "Image registration", in Handbook of Medical Imaging II: Medical Image Processing and Analysis , vol. 2, M. Sonka and J. M. Fitzpatrick, Eds. Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press, 2000, pp. 447-513.
 J. McInerney and D. W. Roberts, "Frameless stereotaxy of the brain," Mt. Sinai J. Med., vol. 67, pp. 300-310, Sep. 2000.
 C. R. Maurer, R. P. Gaston, D. L. G. Hill, M. J. Gleeson, M. G. Taylor, M. R. Fenlon, P. J. Edwards and D. J. Hawkes, "AcouStick: A Tracked A-Mode Ultrasonography System for Registration in Image-Guided Surgery," LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE, pp. 953-962, 1999.
 M. J. Citardi, "Computer-aided frontal sinus surgery", Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am., vol. 34, pp. 111-122, 2001.
 A. C. Colchester, J. Zhao, K. S. Holton-Tainter, C. J. Henri, N. Maitland, P. T. Roberts, C. G. Harris and R. J. Evans, "Development and preliminary evaluation of VISLAN, a surgical planning and guidance system using intra-operative video imaging", Med. Image Anal., vol. 1, pp. 73-90, Mar. 1996.
 M. J. Clarkson, D. Rueckert, D. L. G. Hill and D. J. Hawkes, "Using photo-consistency to register 2D optical images of the human face to a 3D surface model", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 23, pp. 1266-1280, 2001.
 M. J. Clarkson, D. Rueckert, D. L. Hill and D. J. Hawkes, "Registration of multiple video images to preoperative CT for image-guided surgery", Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 3661, pp. 14, 2003.
 W. E. L. Grimson, G. J. Ettinger, S. J. White, T. Lozano-Perez, W. M. Wells III and R. Kikinis, "An automatic registration method for frameless stereotaxy, image guided surgery, and enhanced reality visualization", Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 15, pp. 129-140, 1996.
 M.Gooroochurn, M.Ovinis, D.Kerr, K.Bouazza-Marouf, and M.Vloeberghs, " Preoperative to Intraoperative Space Registration for Management of Head Injuries", Sixth International Conference on Signal and Image Processing, submitted for publication
 R. Brunelli, T. Poggio, "Face recognition: Features versus templates", IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, yr:1993 vol:15 iss:10 pg:1042
 Zhonglong Zheng, Jie Yanga and Limin Yang, "A robust method for eye features extraction on color image", Pattern Recognition Letters Volume 26, Issue 14, 15 October 2005, Pages 2252-2261
 Yeon-Sik Ryu, and Se-Young Oh, "Automatic extraction of eye and mouth fields from a face image using eigenfeatures and multilayer perceptrons", Pattern Recognition, Volume 34, Issue 12, Pages 2459- 2466, December 2001
 Lin-Lin Huang, Akinobu Shimizu and Hidefumi Kobatake, "Robust face detection using Gabor filter features", Pattern Recognition Letters Volume 26, Issue 11, August 2005, Pages 1641-1649
 LIANG CHEN, C.W. ARMSTRONG, D.D. RAFTOPOULOS, "An investigation on the accuracy of three-dimensional space reconstruction using the direct linear transformation technique", Journal of biomechanics, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 493-500, 1994
 W. ZHAO, R.CHELLAPA, P. J. PHILLIPS et al., "Face Recognition: A Literature Survey", ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), Volume 35 , Issue 4 (December 2003), Pages: 399 - 458
 Takeo Kanade, "Picture Processing System by Computer Complex and Recognition of Human Faces," doctoral dissertation, Kyoto University, November, 1973
 A-Nasser Ansari, Mohamed Abdel-Mottaleb, "Automatic facial feature extraction and 3D face modelling using two orthogonal views with application to 3D face recognition", Pattern Recognition 38 (2005) 2549 - 2563.
 Kyrki, V, " Local and global feature extraction for invariant object recognition", Ph.D. thesis, Lappeenranta, University of Technology, 2002
 D. Gabor, "Theory of communications". J. Inst. Electr., Engrs. 93, 429- 457, 1946
 J.G. Daugman, "Uncertainty relation for resolution in space, spatial frequency, and orientation optimized by two-dimensional visual cortical filters", J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2 (7), 1160-1169, 1985
 K. Ville, J.-K. Kamarainen, H. Kalviainen, "Simple Gabor feature space for invariant object recognition", Pattern Recognition Letters 25 (2004) 311-318
 A.M. Martinez and R. Benavente "The AR Face Database", CVC Technical Report #24, June 1998"
 P. J. Phillips, H. Wechsler, J. Huang, and P. Rauss, "The FERET database and evaluation procedure for face recognition algorithms", Image and Vision Computing J, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp 295-306, 1998.