Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30169
A 25-year Monitoring of the Air Pollution Depicted by Plane Tree Species in Tehran

Authors: S. A. A. Korori, H. Valipour K., S. Shabestani, A. shirvany, M. Matinizadeh


Tehran, one of the heavily-populated capitals, is severely suffering from increasing air pollution. To show a documented trend of such pollutants during last years, plane tree species (Platanus orientalis) were suited to be studied as indicators, for the species have been planted throughout the city many years ago. Two areas (Saadatabad and Narmak districts) allotting different contents of crowed and highly-traffic routs but the same ecological characteristics were selected. Twelve sample individuals were cored twice perpendicularly in each area. Tree-rings of each core were measured by a binocular microscope and separated annually for the last 25 years. Two heavy metals including Cd and Pb accompanied by a mineral element (Ca) were analyzed using Hatch method. Treerings analysis of the two areas showed different groups in term of physiologically ability as the growths were plunged during the last 10 years in Saadatabad district and showed a slight decrease in the same period for another studying area. In direct contrast to decreasing growth trend in Saadatabad, all three mentioned elements increased sharply during last 25 years in the same area. When it came to Narmak district, the trend was completely different with Saadatabad. There were some fluctuations in absorbing trace elements like tree-rings widths were, yet calcium showed an upward trend all the last 25 years. The results of the study proved the possibility of using tree species of each region to monitor its air pollution trends of the past, hence to depict a pollution assessment of a populated city for last years and then to make appropriate decisions for the future as it is well-known what the trend is. On the other hand, risen values of calcium (as the stress-indicator element) accompanied by increased trace elements suggests non-sustainable state of the trees.

Keywords: Air pollution, Platanus orientalis, Tehran, Traceelements, Tree rings.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1250


[1] A. Andersson, and S. Bingefors, "Trends and annual variations in Cd concentration in grain of winter wheat," Acta Agriculture Scandinavia, vol. 35, pp. 339-344, 1985.
[2] V. Balodis, G. Brū melis, K. Kalviš kis, O. Nikodemus, D. Tjarve, and V. Znotiaņa, "Does the Skrunda radi location station diminish the radial growth of pine trees?" Science of the Total Environment, vol. 180, no. 1- 2, pp. 57-64, 1999.
[3] S. Bernal-Salazar, T. Terrazas, and D. Alvarado, "Impact of air pollution on ring width and tracheid dimensions in Abies Religiosa in the Mexico City basin," IAWA Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 205-214, 2004.
[4] C. V. Cogbill, "The effect of acid precipitation on tree growth in Eastern North America", Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 8, pp. 89-93, 1977.
[5] L. E Cullen, J. G. Palmer, R. P. Duncan, and G. H. Stewart, "Climate change and tree-ring relationships of Nothofagus menziesii tree-line forests," Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 31 no. 11, pp. 1981- 1991, 2001.
[6] Y. Da-pao, G. Hui-yan, W. Jian-dong, W. Qing-li, and D. Li-min, "Relationships of climate change and tree ring of Betula ermanii tree line forest in Changbai Mountain," Journal of Forestry Research, vol. 16 no. 3, pp. 187-192, 2005.
[7] S. C. Díaz, R. Touchan, and T. W. Swetnam, "A tree-ring reconstruction of past precipitation for Baja California Sur, Mexico," International Journal of Climatology vol. 21, pp. 1007-1019, 2001.
[8] A. M. García-Suárez, C. J. Butler, and M. Baillie, "Climate signal in tree-ring chronologies in a temperate climate: a multi-species approach," Dendrochronologia, vol. 27 no. 3, pp. 183-198, 2009.
[9] S. T. Gray, C. L. Fastie, S. T. Jackson, and J. L. Betancourt, "Tree-ringbased reconstruction of precipitation in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, since 1260 A.D," Journal of Climate, vol. 17, pp. 3855-3865, 2004.
[10] G. C. Jacoby, D. E. Bunker, and B. E. Benson, "Tree-ring evidence for an A.D. 1700 Cascadia earthquake in Washington and northern Oregon," Geology, vol. 25 no. 11, pp. 999-1002, 1997.
[11] A. Kagawa, T. Aoki, N. Okada, and Y. Katayama, "Tree-ring Strontium- 90 and Cesium-137 as potential indicators of radioactive pollution," Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 31, pp. 2001-2007, 2002.
[12] N. Khorasani, "Air pollution effects on annual tree ring growth of plane trees in Tehran," Journal of Iranian Natural Resources, vol. 46, pp. 51- 62, 1993.
[13] Y. W. Kuang, F. F. Sun, D. Zh. Wen, G. Y. Zhou, and P Zhao, "Treering growth patterns of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) during the recent decades in the acidification Pearl River Delta of China," Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 255, no. 8-9, pp. 3534-3540, 2008.
[14] N. Liu, C. Peng, Z. Lin, G. Lin, and X. Pan, "Effects of simulated so2 pollution on subtropical forest succession": Toward chlorophyll fluorescence concept. Pak. J. Bot., vol. 39 no. 6, pp. 1921-1935, 2007.
[15] D.J. Nowak, "Trees pollute? A "TREE" explains it all". In: Proceedings of the 7th National Urban Forestry Conference. American Forests. Washington, DC. pp. 28-30, 1995.
[16] A. Pantera, A. M. Papadopoulos, and M. Orfanoudakis, "Trace element accumulation in tree rings of pinus halepensis during the late last 140 years," Global NEST Journal, vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 286-292, 2007.
[17] C. Pearson, S. W. Manning, M. Coleman, and K. Jarvis, "Can tree-ring chemistry reveal absolute dates for past volcanic eruptions?" Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 32, pp. 1265-1274, 2005.
[18] M. M. Savard, C. Bégin, J. Marion, and A. Smirnoff, "Pollution and climate effects on tree-ring nitrogen isotopes," Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, EGU2009-6157, 2009.
[19] G. T. Shi, Z. L. Chen, and H. W. Li, "Present and future study on heavy metal contaminations in urban soil" (in Chinese), Administration Technique Environ Moint, vol. 18 no. 6, pp. 9-12, 2006.
[20] Th. W. Swetnam, "Fire and climate history in the Western Americas from tree rings," PAGES News vol. 10 no. 1,
[21] A. E. S. Vives, R. M. C. Silva, J. G. da S. Medeiros, M. Tomazello Filho, R. C. Barroso, O. L. A. D. Zucchi, and S. Moreira, "Accumulation of elements in annual tree rings measured by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis," X-Ray Spectrometry, vol. 34, pp. 411-416, 2005.
[22] D. K. Yamaguchi, B. F. Atwater, D. E. Bunker, B. E. Benson, and M. S. Reid, "Tree-ring rating the 1700 Cascadia earthquake," Nature, vol. 389, pp. 922-923, 1997.
[23] L. Yu, T. WeiYuan, B. Tingyi, Y. ZengYue, S. HuiMing, L. Na, W. WeiPing, Z. HongYi, Z. Wei, and A. ZhiSheng, "Trace elements in tree rings and their environmental effects: A case study in Xi' an City," Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, vol. 52 no. 4, pp. 504-510, 2009.