Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30172
Knowledge Flows and Innovative Performances of NTBFs in Gauteng, South Africa: An Attempt to Explain Mixed Findings in Science Park Research
Abstract:Science parks are often established to drive regional economic growth, especially in countries with emerging economies. However, mixed findings regarding the performances of science park firms are found in the literature. This study tries to explain these mixed findings by taking a relational approach and exploring (un)intended knowledge transfers between new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in the emerging South African economy. Moreover, the innovation outcomes of these NTBFs are examined by using a multi-dimensional construct. Results show that science park location plays a significant role in explaining innovative sales, but is insignificant when a different indicator of innovation outcomes is used. Furthermore, only for innovations that are new to the firms, both science park location and intended knowledge transfer via informal business relationships have a positive impact; whereas social relationships have a negative impact.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1080554Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1128
 M. McAdam, and R. McAdam, "High tech start-ups in University Science Park incubators: The relationship between the start-up-s lifecycle progression and the use of the incubator-s resources," Technovation, vol. 28, pp. 277-290, 2008.
 H. Etzkowitz, and L. Leydesdorff, "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and ÔÇÿmode 2- to a Triple Helix of university-industrygovernment relations," Research Policy, vol. 29, pp. 109-123, 2000.
 S. Chen, and C.J. Choi, "Creating a knowledge-based city: the example of Hsinchu Science Park," Journal of Knowledge management, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 73-82, 2004.
 D. Massey, P. Quintas, and D. Wield, High Tech Fantasies: Science Parks in Society. Oxford: Routhledge, 1992.
 Y.L. Bakouros, D.C. Mardas, and N.C. Varsakelis, "Science park, a high tech fantasy?: an analysis of the science parks of Greece," Technovation, vol. 22, pp. 123-128, 2002.
 Westhead, P., 1997. "R&D ÔÇÿinputs- and ÔÇÿoutputs- of technology-based firms located on and off Science Parks", R&D Management, vol. 27, no. 1, pp.45-62.
 P. Lindelöf, and H. Löfsten, "Proximity as a resource base for competitive advantage: university-industry links for technology transfer," Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 29, pp. 311-326, 2004.
 Felsenstein, D. 1994. "University-related science parks - ÔÇÿseedbeds- or ÔÇÿenclaves- of innovation?", Technovation, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 93 - 110.
 C. Malairaja, and G. Zawdie, "Science parks and university-industry collaboration in Malaysia," Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 727-739, 2008.
 H. Brown, Knowledge and Innovation: A Comparative Study of the USA, the UK and Japan. New York: Routledge, 2008.
 D.S. Siegel, P. Westhead, and M. Wright, "Assessing the impact of university science parks on research productivity: exploratory firm-level evidence from the United Kingdom," International Journal of Industrial Organization, vol. 21, pp. 1357-1369, 2003.
 I.S. Ak├ºomak, and E. Taymaz, "Assessing the effectiveness of incubators: The case of turkey". ERC Working Papers 0412, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, 2004.
 E.G.T. Green E.G.T., J. Deschamps, and D. P├íez, "Variation of individualism and collectivism within and between 20 countries: A typological analysis," Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 321 - 339, 2005.
 P. Westhead, and M. Cowling, "Employment change in independent owner-managed high-technology firms in Great Britain," Small Business Economics, vol. 7, pp. 111-140, 1995.
 M.G. Colombo, and M. Delmastro, "How effective are technology incubators? Evidence from Italy," Research Policy, vol. 31, pp. 1103- 1122, 2002.
 R. Ferguson, and C. Olofsson, "Science parks and the development of NTBFs - Location, survival and growth," Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 29, pp. 5-17, 2004.
 H. Löfsten, and P. Lindelöf, "Science Parks and the growth of new technology-based firms - academic-industry links, innovation and markets," Research Policy, vol. 31, pp. 859-876, 2002.
 P. Dettwiler, and P. Lindelöf, H. Löfsten, "Utility of location: A comparative survey between small new technology-based firms located on and off Science Parks - Implications for facilities management," Technovation, vol. 26, pp. 506-517, 2006.
 C. Yang, K. Motohashi, and J. Chen, "Are new technology-based firms located on science parks really more innovative? Evidence from Taiwan," Research Policy, vol. 38, pp. 77-85, 2009.
 P. Lindelöf, and H. Löfsten, "Science Park location and new technologybased firms in Sweden - Implications for strategy and performance", Small Business Economics, vol. 20, pp. 245-258, 2003.
 J.P. Murmann, J.P., Knowledge and Competitive Advantage. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
 S. Thornhill, "Knowledge, innovation and firm performance in high- and low-technology regimes," Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 21, pp. 687-703, 2006.
 K. Ichijo, and I. Nonaka, "Introduction: Knowledge as competitive advantage in the age of increasing globalization," in Knowledge Creation and Management: New Challenges for Managers, K. Ichijo & I. Nonaka, Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 3-10.
 M. H. Fallah, and S. Ibrahim, "Knowledge spillover and innovation in technological clusters," in International Association for Management of Technology 13th International Conference on Management of Technology, Washington D.G., April, 2004, pp.
 L.A.G. Oerlemans, L.A.G., and M.T.H. Meeus, "Do organizational and spatial proximity impact on firm performance?," Regional Studies, vol. 39, pp. 89-104, 2005.
 H. Ernst, "Patent applications and subsequent changes of performance: evidence from time-series cross-section analyses on the firm level," Research Policy, vol. 30, pp. 143-157, 2001.
 L. Bottazzi, and P. Giovanni, "Innovation and spillovers in regions: evidence from the European patent data", European Economic Review, vol. 47, pp. 687-710, 2003.
 G.N. Stock, N.P. Greis and W.A. Fischer, "Firm size and dynamic technological innovation," Technovation, pp. 537-549, 2002.
 R. Du, and S. Ai, "Cross-organizational knowledge acquisition through flexible hiring and joint R&D: Insights from a survey in China," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 434-441, 2008.
 G. Mentzas, D. Apostolou, K. Kafentzis, and P. Georgolios, "Interorganizational networks for knowledge sharing and trading," Information Technology and Management, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 259-276, 2006.
 G. Boyce, "Networks, tacit knowledge, and innovation" in Globalization and partnerships, J. Aurifeille et al., Ed. New York: Nova Publishers, 2007, pp. 47-59.
 B. Gay, and B. Dousset, "Innovation and network structural dynamics: Study of the alliance network of a major sector of the biotechnology industry," Research Policy, vol. 34, pp. 1457-1475, 2005.
 R.A. Boschma, and A.L.J. ter Wal, "Knowledge networks and innovative performance in an industrial district: The case of a footwear district in the South of Italy," Industry and Innovation, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 177-199, 2007.
 B.C. Erbas, A. Fikirkoca and A. Tuzcu, "Innovativeness of manufacturing small and medium size enterprises in Turkish Regional Innovation System", in RSA Annual International Conference 2008, Prague, 2008.
 J.B. Barney, "Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage," Advances in Strategic Management, vol. 17, pp. 203-227, 2000.
 P. Almeida, and B. Kogut, "Localisation of knowledge and the mobility of engineers in regional networks," Management Science, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 905-917, 1999.
 A.B. Jaffe, M. Trajtenberg, and M.R. Fogarty, "Knowledge spillovers and patent citations: Evidence from a survey of inventors," American Economic Review, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 215-19, 2000.
 T. Mukoyama, "Innovation, imitation, and growth with cumulative technology," Journal of Monetary Economics, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 361- 380, 2003.
 J. Lorentzen, "Learning by firms: The black box of South Africa-s innovation systems", Science and Public Policy, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 33 - 45, 2009.
 R. Rothwell, "The role of small firms in the emergence of new technologies," Omega, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 19-29, 1984.
 H. Bresman, J.M. Birkinshaw, and R. Nobel, "Knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 439-462, 1999.
 R. Agarwal, and M. Gort, "Firm and Product Life Cycles and Firm Survival," The American Economic Review, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 184-190, 2002.
 S.T. Cavusgil, R.J. Calantone, and Y. Zhao, "Tacit knowledge transfer and firm innovation capability," Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 6-21, 2003.
 IASP, Retrived 14/11/2007 World Wide Web, http://www.iasp.ws
 N. Fukugawa, "Science parks in Japan and their value-added contributions to new technology-based firms," International Journal of Industrial Organization, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 381-400, 2006.
 E. Otte, and R. Rousseau, "Social network analysis: a powerful strategy, also for the information sciences," Journal of Information Science, vol.28, pp. 443-455, 2002.
 J.R.L. Howells, "Tacit Knowledge, Innovation and Economic Geography," Urban Studies, vol. 39, no. 5, pp.871 - 884, 2002.
 B. Cassiman, M. G. Colombo, P. Garrone, and R. de Veugelers, "The impact of M&A on the R&D process: An empirical analysis of the role of technological- and market-relatedness," Research Policy, vol. 34, pp. 195-220, 2005.
 M.S. Dahl, and C. ├ÿ.R. Pedersen, "Knowledge flows through informal contacts in industrial clusters: myth or reality", Research Policy, vol. 33, pp. 1673-1686, 2004.
 E. Autio, "ÔÇÿAtomistic- and ÔÇÿsystemic- approaches to research on new, technology-based firms: A literature study," Small Business Economics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 195-209, 1997.
 L. Aaboen, P. Lindelöf, and H. Löfsten, "Incubator performance: an efficiency frontier analysis," International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 354-380, 2008.
 L.A.G. Oerlemans, M.W. Pretorius, A.J. Buys, and G. Rooks. Industrial innovation in South Africa, 1998-2000. Pretoria: University of Pretoria, 2004.