Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30820
Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Filamentous Cyanobacterial Species to an Organochlorine Insecticide - 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10- Hexachloro-1, 5, 5a, 6, 9, 9a-Hexahydro-6, 9- Methano-2, 4, 3-Benzodioxathiepine-3-Oxide
Abstract:Application of pesticides in the paddy fields has deleterious effects on non-target organisms including cyanobacteria which are photosynthesizing and nitrogen fixing micro-organisms contributing significantly towards soil fertility and crop yield. Pesticide contamination in the paddy fields has manifested into a serious global environmental concern. To study the effect of one such pesticide, three cyanobacterial strains; Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica were selected for their stress responses to an Organochlorine insecticide - 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10-hexachloro-1, 5, 5a, 6, 9, 9a-hexahydro-6, 9-methano-2, 4, 3- benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide, with reference to their photosynthesic pigments-chlorophyll-a and carotenoids as well as accessory pigments-phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin), stress induced biochemical metabolites like carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenols and enzymes-nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and succinate dehydrogenase. All the three cyanobacterial strains were adversely affected by the insecticide doses and inhibition was dose dependent. Reduction in photosynthetic and accessory pigments, metabolites, nitrogen fixing and respiratory enzymes of the test organisms were accompanied with an initial increase in their total protein at lower Organochlorine doses. On the other hand, increased amount of phenols in all the insecticide treated concentrations was indicative of stressed activities of the organisms.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1054958Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1792
 B. D. Kaushik, "Blue-green algal fertilizer and rice cultivation in normal and saline alkali soils," in Golden Jubilee Lecture, Asiatic Society, Bangladesh, Dhaka, July 25.
 K. Mellanby, "Forward," Pesticide microbiology; I.R. Hill, S.J.L. Wright, Eds. New York: Academic Press, 1978, pp.7. 1978.
 F.B. Pankratz, C. Doebel, A. Farenhorst, and L.G. Goldsborough, "Interactions between algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) and pesticides: implications for managing constructed wetlands for pesticides removal," J. Environ. Sci. Health B, vol. 38, pp. 147-155, 2003.
 W. Battaglin, and J. Fairchild, "Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in mid-western streams to aquatic organisms," Water Sci. Technol.,vol. 45, pp. 95-102, 2002.
 V. Nagpal, and S.K. Goyal, "Growth response of cyanobacteria to herbicides," Acta. Bot. Ind.,vol. 20, pp.175-176, 1992.
 J.I. Nirmal Kumar, "Response of Anabaena sp. 310 to Isoproturon," J. Ind. Bot. Soc., vol. 70, pp. 277-280, 1991.
 J.I. Nirmal Kumar, and N. Rita Kumar, "Some metabolic observations of Nostoc muscorum to a herbicide-fluchloralin," Plant Arch., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 289-293, 2002.
 J.I. Nirmal Kumar, A. Manmeet Kaur, and B. Anubhuti, "Differential effect of Phenoxy Substituted Herbicide 2, 4-D on Pigments, Metabolites, and Enzyme Activities of Three Species of Cyanobacteria," Int. J.BioSci.Tech., vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 87-95, 2009.
 R. Rippka, S. Deruelles, J.B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R.Y. Stanier, "Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria," J. Gen. Microbiol., vol. 111, pp. 1-61, 1979.
 S.W. Jeffrey, and G.F. Humphrey, "New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophylls a, b, c1 and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural populations," Biochem. Physio. Pflanzen, vol. 167, pp. 191-194, 1975.
 T.R. Parsons, and J.D. Strickland,"Discussion of spectrophotometric determination of marine plant pigments with revised equations for ascertaining chlorophylls and Carotenoids," J.Mar.Res., vol. 21, pp. 155- 163, 1963.
 A. Bennett, and L. Bogorad, "Complementary chromatic adaptation in a filamentous blue-green alga," The J. of Cell Biol., vol. 58, pp. 419-435, 1973.
 J.H. Roe, "The determination of sugar in blood and spinal fluid with anthron reagent," J.Biol.Chem., vol. 2112, pp. 335-343, 1955.
 O.H. Lowry, N.H. Rosenbrough, A.L. Farr, and R.J. Randall, "Protein measurements with folinphenol reagent," J. Biol. Chem., vol. 193, pp. 265-275, 1951.
 Y. Lee, and T. Takahasi, "An imported colorimetric determination of amino acids with the use of ninhydrin," Anal Biochem., vol. 14, pp.71- 77, 1966.
 C.P. Malick, and M.B. Singh, Plant Enzymology and Histo Enzymology. New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers, 1980.
 C. Sempruch, A.P. Ciepiela, I. Sprawka, and G. Chrzanowski, ÔÇ×Purification and some physicochemical properties of nitrate reductase isolated from winter triticale seedlings," Elec. J.Pol. Agric. Uni.,vol.11, no.1, 2008.
 V. Pamiljans, P.R. Krishnaswamy, G. Dumville, and A. Meister, "Studies on the mechanism of glutamine synthetase: isolation and properties of the enzyme from sheep brain," Biochem., vol.1, pp. 153- 158, 1962.
 E. Kun, and L.G. Abood, "Colorimetric estimation of succinic dehydrogenase by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride," Sci., vol. 109, no. 2824, pp. 144-146, 1949.
 S.M. Prasad, D. Kumar, and Mohd, Zeeshan, "Growth, photosynthesis, active oxygen species and antioxidants responses of paddy field cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum to endosulfan stress," J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 51, pp. 115-123, 2005.
 F.I. Mostafa, and C.S. Helling, "Impact of four pesticides on the growth and metabolic activities of two photosynthetic algae," J. Environ. Sci. Health.,vol. 37, pp. 417-444, 2002.
 N. Padhy Rabindran, "Cyanobacteria and pesticides," Res. Rev., vol. 95, pp. 1-44, 1985.
 S. Kumar, K. Habib and T. Fatma, "Endosulfan induced biochemical changes in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria," Sci Total Environ., vol. 403, no. 1-3, pp. 130-138, 2008.
 A.I. Shehata, I.A.W. Arif, and F.Al. Aqeel, "Isolation and characterization of DNA and protein from endosulfan resistant mutant (endor) of the cyanobacterium anabaena flos-aquae, " Saudi.J.Biol.Sci., vol. 8, no. 1, 2001.
 J.C. Measures, "Role of amino acids in osmoregulation of non halophilic bacteria," Nature (London), vol. 257, pp. 398-400, 1975.
 P.K. Pradnya, J.B. Bharati, M.D. Neelima, and S.S.Seema, "Biodegradation of organophosphorous pesticides," Proc. Indian natn Sci Acad. B, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 57-70, 2004.
 P. Calow, and R. Sibly, Funct. Ecol., vol. 4, pp. 283, 1990.
 S.P. Adhikary,P. Das, and H. Pattnaik, "Effect of carbamate insecticide Sevin on Anabaena sp. and Westiellopsis prolifica," J.Gen. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 35, pp. 335-338, 1984.
 U.M. Rajendran, E. Kathirvel, and A. Narayanaswamy, "Effects of a fungicide, an insecticide, and a biopesticide on Tolypothrix scytonemoides.," Pest. Biochem.Physiol., vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 164-171, 2007.
 A. Kalam, and A.K. Banerjee, "Action of the fungicide tridemorph on the glucose, lactate and succinate dehydrogenase activities of some tridemorph-sensitive and -resistant bacteria," Pest. Sci., vol. 43, no.1, pp. 41-45, 1995.