Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30855
Charaterisation of Salmonella Isolated from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) along Lake Victoria Beaches in Western Kenya
Abstract:Foodborne Salmonella infections have become a major problem world wide. Salmonellosis transmitted from fish are quite common. Established quality control measures exist for export oriented fish, none exists for fish consumed locally. This study aimed at characterization of Salmonella isolated from Nile tilapia . The study was carried out in selected beaches along L. Victoria in Western Kenya between March and June 2007. One hundred and twenty fish specimens were collected. Salmonella isolates were confirmed using serotyping, biochemical testing in addition to malic acid dehydrogenase (mdh) and fliC gene sequencing. Twenty Salmonella isolates were confirmed by mdh gene sequencing. Nine (9) were S. enterica serotype typhimurium, four (4) were S. enterica Serotype, enteritidis and seven (7) were S. enterica serotype typhi. Nile tilapia have a role in transmission of Salmonellosis in the study area, poor sanitation was a major cause of pollution at the beach inshore waters.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1329651Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1657
 R.E. Black,K.H. Brown,S. Becker " Effects of diarrhoea associated with specific enteropathogens on the growth of children in rural Bangladesh."vol 73,pp 799-805,1984.
 L.M.D. Gooze " Bacterial Infections associated with HIV", HIV Insight KnowledgeBase Chapter. Stanford Univ. Sch. of Medicine,1998.
 J. Pang, Z.A. Bhutta, B. B. Finlay ,M. Altwegg , "Typhoid, fever and other Salmonellosis: a continuity challenge-Trends microbial vol 3, pp 253-255, 1995.
 T.M. Gomez ,Y. Motrjemi ,S. Miyagawa ,F.K. Kaferstein, K. Stohr , "Foodborne Salmonellosis" World Health Stat. Q.;vol 50, pp81-9,1997.
 H.Esaki , A. Morioka , K. Ishihara, " Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from cattle, swine, and poultry (2001 - 2002): Report from the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Program", Antimicrob. Chemother vol 53, pp 266- 70,2004.
 R.V. Tauxe , "Emerging food borne diseases: an evolving public health challenge. The fish exporting and fishmeal industries of Lake Victoria - structure, strategies and socio-economic impacts in Kenya "Annual Report, Emerge. Infect. Dis. vol 3 , pp 425-434,1997.
 R.H. Davies, C. Wray, " Seasonal variations in the isolation of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Bacillus aureus and Clostridium perfringens from environmental samples", J. vet. Med. Ser.vol 43, pp.119-127,1996.
 W. Chao, R. Ding, R. Chen, "Survival of pathogenic bacteria in environmental microcosms", Chinese J. Microbial Immun. Vol. 20, pp.339-348,1987.
 M.H. Abdel-Monem, A.A. Dowidar, "Recoveries of Salmonella from soil in Eastern region of Saudi Arabia Kingdon-, J. Egypt. Public Health Assoc. vol, 65, pp.61- 75, 1990.
 J. Baudart , K. Lemarchand , A. Brisabois , P. Lebaron, " Diversity of Salmonella strains isolated from the acquatic environment as determined by serotyping and amplification of ribosomal DNA spacer regions", Appl. Environ. Microbiol.; vol. 66, NO. 4, pp.1544 -1552, 2000.
 E.K. Lipp , J.B. Rose, " The role of sea food in foodborne diseases in the United States of America," Rev. Sci. Tech. OIE, vol. 16, pp.620- 640,1997.
 A. Zlotkin ,A. Eldar , C. Ghifino , H. Bercovier , " Identification of Lactococcus garvieae by PCR,". J. Clin. Microbiol.,vol. 36 pp. 983- 985,1989.
 P. Bhaftopadhyay , " Fish - catching and handling ," In: Robinson R.K. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, Academic Press, London, vol.2, pp. 1547,2000.
 P.N. Acha, B. Szyfres, "Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals," Bacterioses and mycoses. 3rd ed. Scientific and Technical Publication ,vol.1, No. 580, Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the WHO, Washington, USA,; ISBN 92 75 31580 9. pp..384,2003.
 J. Liston "Microbiology in fishery science", In Connell, JJ. (ed). Advances in Fish Science andTechnology; Jubilee Conference of Torry Research Oxford: Fishing News Books Ltd, Farnham, UK, 1980.
 R.O. Abila, E.G. Jansen, "From Local to Global markets: The fish exporting and fishing meal industries of Lake Victoria- Structure, Strategies and Socio-economic Impacts in Kenya," IUCN Eastern Africa programme. Socio-economics of Lake Victoria fisheries: Report No.2, The World Conservation Union, Nairobi, 1997.
 S.Kayambo, E.J.Sven , " Lake Victoria. Experience and lessons learnt. A case Study for Preliminary Risk Assessment Report.; pp. 431 - 446, 2006.
 V.O. Ogwan-g, M. Muchiri, P. Thakor , " Investigation of bacteriological quality of smoked fish," In: Knowledge and experiences gained from managing The Lake Victoria Ecosystem. Mallya G,Wambede, J, Kusewa, M. (eds). Published by LVEMP Regional Secretariat, Dar es Salaam.; pp. 552-569,2005.
 D. Onyango, F. Machoni, R. Kakai, E.N. Waindi , " Multidrug resistance of Salmonella enteric serovars Typhi and Typhimurium isolated from clinical samples at two rural hospitals in Western Kenya," J. Infect Developing Countries; vol.2, no.2, pp. 106-111, 2008a.
 A. Nesbitt, B.M. Nazir, "Salmonella septiceamia in Kenyan children", J. Tropic. Paediatrics. Vol. 35 pp. 35-39, 1989.
 H.S. Roger, L. Kumar, P. Philips-Heward , J.G. Wells , P. Adrock, J. Brooks, et al. "Antimicrobial resistant bacterial diarrhoea in rural Western Kenya" J. infect. Dis. Vol. 183: 1701-4, 2001.
 J.T. Brooks , L.S. Roger ,L. Kumar, J.G. Wells , A. Penelope, Philip- Howard et al. " Epidemiology of periodic Bloody Diarrhoea in Rural Western Kenya ," Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.vol. 68, no. 6 pp. 671-677, 2003.
 T.B. Brooks , J.B. Ochieng , L. Kumar, G. Okoth ,R.L. Shapiro, J.G. Wells , et al., " Surveillance for Bacterial Diarrhoea and Antimicrobial Resistance in Rural Western Kenya",2006.
 S. Kariuki, Revathi G, Muyodi JM, Munyalo A, Kagendo D, Murungi L. et al. (2004): Increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant non-typhodal Salmonella, Kenya. Intnatl. J. Antimicrob. Agents;vol. 25, pp.38-43, 2004.
 P.G. Njiru , " An overview of the present status of the water quality in L.Victoria, Kenya," A limnological perspective: In: Knowledge and experiences gained from managing The Lake Victoria Ecosystem. Mallya G. Wambede, J. Kusewa, M. (eds). Published by LVEMP Regional Secretariat, Dar es Salaam; pp. 679-690, 2005.
 A. Newaj-Fyzul, A. Abiodun, A. Adesiyun, Mutani A, "Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella sp isolated from apparently healthy ornamental fish and pond water in Trinidad," J.of food. Agric. and Environ; Vol 4, no. 1, pp.27-29,2005.
 M.Y. Popoff, Le Minor, "Antigenic formula of the Salmonella serovars," 7th edition World Health Organization, collaborating center for reference and research on Salmonella; Pasteur institute, Paris, France, 1997.
 F. Kauffman, "The bacteriology of Enterobacteriacae," Munksgaard, Copenhagen,Denmark, 1997.
 F.W. Brenner, "Modified Kauffmann-White Scheme," CDC. Atlanta,Georgia, 1998.
 R.C.M. Crul, "Monographs of African great lakes; Limnology and Hydrology of L. Victoria Part" 1UNESCO/HIV-IV project comprehensive & comparative study of great lakes. A project of the fourth phase of the International Hydrological Programme of the Division of water sciences of UNESCO.(UNESCO/IHP-IV Project M-5- 1), 1995.
 B.A. Ogindo, "Bacterial pollution indicators and their physico-chemical environment in the inshore waters of L.Victoria, Kisumu City in Relation to Enteric Diseases," A PhD thesis Maseno University, 2005.
 G.F. Nanyaro, J. Makene , " Report on studies of Fish handling in water, landing beaches, at markets and during transportation in Mwanza gulf," Fisheries management component. Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization; vol. 1: 19-30, 1989.
 J.M. Shewan, "The Microbiology of sea water fish ," In Borgstrum, G. (ed) Fish as food; vol. 1, pp. 487-9, 1961.
 G.J. Banwart, "Basic Food Microbiology," Westport Connecticut: The AVI publishing company Inc.A bridged edition, 1981.
 J.H.J. Huis in-t veld, "Microbial and Biochemical spoilage of foods," An overview. Internatl. J. Food Microbiol.vol. 33 pp. 1-18, 1996.
 H.H. Huss, "Assurance of seafood quality," Food and organization Fisheries Technical Paper 334. Rome: FAO.1994.
 NARO - National Agricultural Research Organization Uganda : " A survey of sanitary and hygienic conditions of the industrial fish processing sector, from landing sites through plant to exit routes (airport)," NAROSEC report, 1997.
 J. Atyang , " A manual for Training Staff in Uganda Fish Processing Plants on Hygiene and Sanitation and application of HACCP Principles," J. of UNU - Fisheries Training Programme vol. 1 pp.43- 57,1999.
 E. Dupray, A. Derrien , " Influence of the previous stay of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in waste water on their survival in seawater," Water Res. Vol. 29, pp.1005-1011,1995
 A.F Rwabinge "Investigation of bacteriological ecological sanitation in the lake zone: Awareness Creation and Action" In: Knowledge and experiences gained from managing The Lake Victoria Ecosystem. Mallya G,Wambede, J, Kusewa, M. (eds). Published by LVEMP Regional Secretariat, Dar es Salaam; pp. 624-634, 2005.
 D. Onyango, S. Wandili, R. Kakai, E.N. Waindi, Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella from fish harvested along winam Gulf of lake Victoria, Kenya, J. infect. Dis. In Developing Countries,Vol. 2, pp.106- 111, 2008b.