Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32146
Photodegradation of Phenol Red in the Presence of ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: T.K. Tan, P.S. Khiew, W.S. Chiu, S.Radiman, R.Abd-Shukor, N.M. Huang, H.N. Lim


In our recent study, we have used ZnO nanoparticles assisted with UV light irradiation to investigate the photocatalytic degradation of Phenol Red (PR). The ZnO photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis (BET) and UVvisible spectroscopy. X-ray diffractometry result for the ZnO nanoparticles exhibit normal crystalline phase features. All observed peaks can be indexed to the pure hexagonal wurtzite crystal structures, with the space group of P63mc. There are no other impurities in the diffraction peak. In addition, TEM measurement shows that most of the nanoparticles are rod-like and spherical in shape and fairly monodispersed. A significant degradation of the PR was observed when the catalyst was added into the solution even without the UV light exposure. In addition, the photodegradation increases with the photocatalyst loading. The surface area of the ZnO nanomaterials from the BET measurement was 11.9 m2/g. Besides the photocatalyst loading, the effect of some parameters on the photodegradation efficiency such as initial PR concentration and pH were also studied.

Keywords: Nanostructures, phenol red, zinc oxide, heterogeneous photocatalyst.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2937


[1] S. Chakrabarti and B.K. Dutta, "Photocatalytic degradation of model textile dyes in wastewater using ZnO as semiconductor catalyst," J. Hazard. Mater. B, vol. 112, pp. 269-278, Aug. 2004.
[2] J. N. Daneshvar, D. Salari and A.R. Khataee, "Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water on ZnO as an alternative catalyst to TiO2," J. Photochem. Photobio. A Chem., vol. 162, pp. 317- 322, March 2004.
[3] S.K. Kansal, A.H. Ali, and S. Kapoor, "Photocatalytic decolorization of beibrich scarlet dye in aqueous phase using different nanophotocatalysts," Desalination, vol. 259, pp. 147-155, 2010.
[4] S.K. Pardeshi, and A.B. Patil, "A simple route for photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous zinc oxide suspension using solar energy," Sol. Energy, vol. 82, pp. 700-705, Aug. 2008.
[5] M. El-Kemary, H. El-Shamy, and I. El-Mehasseb, "Photocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin drug in water using ZnO nanoparticles," J. Lumin., vol. 130, pp. 2327-2331, 2010.
[6] R.K. Wahi, W.W. Yu, Y. Liu, M.L. Mejia, J.C. Falkner, W. Nolte, V.L. Colvin, "Photodegradation of Congo Red catalyzed by nanosized TiO2," J. Mol. Cata. A Chem., vol. 242, pp. 48-56, Dec. 2005.
[7] W.Z. Tang, and H. An, "UV/TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation of commercial dyes in aqueous solutions," Chemosphere, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 4157-4170, Nov. 1995.
[8] C. Ahmed, M.G. Rasul, R. Brown, and M.A. Hashib, "Influence of parameters on the heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of pesticides and phenolic contaminants in wastewater: A short review," J. Environ. Managem., vol. 92, pp. 311-330, 2011.
[9] S.T. Wong, C.C. Hwang, C.Y. Mou, "Tungstated zirconia catalyzed bromination of phenol red under nearly neutral solution," Appl. Catal. B. Environ., vol. 63, pp. 1-8, March 2006.
[10] F.R. Zaggout, "Entrapment of phenol red pH indicator into a sol-gel matrix," Mater. Lett., vol. 60, pp. 1026-1030, Apr. 2006.
[11] Y. Berthois, J.A. Katzenellenbogen, B.S. Katzenellenbogen, "Phenol red in tissue culture media is a weak estrogen: implications concerning the study of estrogen-responsive cells in culture," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Cell Bio., vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 2496-2500, Apr. 1986.
[12] J. Mitsuhashi, H. Mitomi, W. Koizumi, S. Kikuchi, I. Okayasu, K. Saigenji, "Spraying of phenol red dye as a screening test for Helicobacter pylori infection in surgically resected stomach specimens," J. Gastroenterology, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1049-1052, 2003.
[13] Q. Zhang, W. Fan, L. Gao, "Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized on ZnO tetrapods as a highly efficient and easily recyclable photocatalyst," J. Appl. Catal. B Environ., vol. 76, pp. 168-173, Oct. 2007.
[14] W.S. Chiu, P.S. Khiew, M. Cloke, D. Isa, T.K. Tan, S. Radiman, R. Abd-Shukor, M.A. Abd-Hamid, N.M. Huang, H.N. Lim, C.H. Chia, "Photocatalytic study of two-dimensional ZnO nanopellets in the decomposition of methylene blue," Chem. Engineer. J., vol. 158, pp. 345-352, 2010.
[15] Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Society (JCPDS), Powder Diffraction Database, pattern: 36-1451.
[16] J. Hay, W. Khan, J.K. Sugden, "Photochemical decomposition of Phenol Red (Phenolsulphonphtalein)," Dye and Pigments, vol. 24, pp. 305-312, 1994.
[17] R. Velmurugan, and M. Swaminathan, "An efficient nanostructured ZnO for dye sensitized degradation of Reactive Red 120 dye under solar light," Sol. Ener. Mater. & Sol. Cells, vol. 95, pp. 942-950, 2011.
[18] S.K. Kansal, M. Singh, and D. Sud, "Studies on TiO2/ZnO photocatalysed degradation of lignin," J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 153, pp. 412-417.
[19] F. Zhang, J. Zhao, L. Zang, T. Shen, H. Hidaka, E. Pelizzetti, N. Serpone, "Photoassisted degradation of dye pollutants in aqueous TiO2 dispersions under irradiation by visible light," J. Mol. Catal. A Chem., vol. 120, pp. 173-178, June 1997.
[20] G. Marci, V. Augugliaro, M.J. Lopez-Munoz, C. Martin, L. Palmisano, V. Rives, M. Schiavello, R.J.D. Tilley, A.M. Venezia, "Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of polycrystalline ZnO/TiO2 systems--Part II: surface, bulk characterization and 4-nitrophenol photodegradationin liquid solid regime," J. Phys.Chem. B, vol. 105, pp. 1033-1046, 2001.