Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30840
Different Multimedia Presentation Types and Students' Interpretation Achievement

Authors: Cenk Akbiyik, Gonul Altin Akbiyik


The main purpose of the study was to determine whether students- interpretation achievement differed with the use of various multimedia presentation types. Four groups of students, text only (T), audio only (A), text and audio (TA), text and image (TI), were arranged and they were presented the same story via different types of multimedia presentations. Inference achievement was measured by a critical thinking inference test. Higher mean scores for the TA group compared to the other three groups were found. Also when compared pairwise, interpretation achievement of the TA group differed significantly from scores of the T and TI groups. These differences were interpreted with the increased cognitive load. Increased cognitive load for the TA group may have invited students to put more effort into comprehending the text, thus resulting in better test scores. Findings of the study can be seen as a sign of the importance of learning situations and learning outcomes in multimedia-supported learning environments and may have practical benefits for instructional designers.

Keywords: Multimedia, Critical thinking, Cognitive Load, cognitive multimedia, dual coding

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2981


[1] Adulseranee, R. (2007). The Effects of using different types of multimedia presentations on Thai seventh grade learners- understanding of Social Studies text. Doctoral Dissertation. Northern Illinois University, DeKalb.
[2] Arlin, M., Scott, M. and Webster, J. (1978). The effects of pictures on rate of learning sight word. A critique of focal attention hypothesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 14.
[3] Chandler, P. and Sweller, J. (1996). Cognitive load while learning to use a computer program. Applying Cognitive Psychology, 10.
[4] Clark, R. E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53.
[5] Clark, R. E. and Craig, T. G. (1992). Research and theory on multimedia learning effects. Interactive multimedia learning environments: Human factors and technical considerations on design issues. New York: Springer.
[6] Demir, K. M. (2006), The research of fourth and fifth grade primary school students- critical thinking levels in Social Studies lessons according to different variables. Doctoral Dissertation. Gazi University. Ankara.
[7] Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction - Executive summary - The Delphi report. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Pres. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 315 423.
[8] Field, S. T. (1997). Critical thinking skills and the secondary school choral music curriculum. Doctoral Dissertation. Columbia University. New York.
[9] Hsia, H. J. (1968). On channel effectiveness. AV Communication Review, 16.
[10] Hergenhahn, B. R. and Olson, M. H. (1997). An introduction to theories of learning. Fifth edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[11] Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P. and Sweller, J. (2000). Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1).
[12] Kilic, E. (2006). Effects of parallel instructional design and task difficulty level on university students- achievement and cognitive load in multimedia learning environment. Doctoral Dissertation. Ankara University.
[13] Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[14] Mayer, R. E. and Anderson, R. B. (1991). Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(4).
[15] Mayer, R., Heiser, J. and Lonn, S. (2001). Cognitive contraints on multimedia learning: When presenting more material results in less understanding. Journal of Educational Psychology,93.
[16] Murray, T. (2001). Characteristics and affordances of adaptive hyperbooks. Proceedings of WebNet 2001, Orlando, FL.
[17] Najjar, L. J. (1996). Multimedia information and learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 5.
[18] Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory. Retrospect and current status. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45.
[19] Rosen, T. (2006). Combining dual coding theory and split attention effect to increase the number of elements and provide an instant schema to facilitate transfer of abstract words. Masters Dissertation. Texas University Commerce.
[20] Sezgin, M. E. (2002). The effects of multimedia courseware designed based on dual coding theory in science teaching on academic achievement, performance level and retention of learning. Masters Dissertation. Cukurova University. Adana.