Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30296
Concentrated Solar Power Utilization in Space Vehicles Propulsion and Power Generation
Authors: Maged A. Mossallam
Abstract:The objective from this paper is to design a solar thermal engine for space vehicles orbital control and electricity generation. A computational model is developed for the prediction of the solar thermal engine performance for different design parameters and conditions in order to enhance the engine efficiency. The engine is divided into two main subsystems. First, the concentrator dish which receives solar energy from the sun and reflects them to the cavity receiver. The second one is the cavity receiver which receives the heat flux reflected from the concentrator and transfers heat to the fluid passing over. Other subsystems depend on the application required from the engine. For thrust application, a nozzle is introduced to the system for the fluid to expand and produce thrust. Hydrogen is preferred as a working fluid in the thruster application. Results model developed is used to determine the thrust for a concentrator dish 4 meters in diameter (provides 10 kW of energy), focusing solar energy to a 10 cm aperture diameter cavity receiver. The cavity receiver outer length is 50 cm and the internal cavity is 47 cm in length. The suggested design material of the internal cavity is tungsten to withstand high temperature. The thermal model and analysis shows that the hydrogen temperature at the plenum reaches 2000oK after about 250 seconds for hot start operation for a flow rate of 0.1 g/sec.Using solar thermal engine as an electricity generation device on earth is also discussed. In this case a compressor and turbine are used to convert the heat gained by the working fluid (air) into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be converted into electrical power by using a generator.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1074677Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1609
 H. W. Coleman and R. A.Alexander, "Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine", NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, October 1999.
 M. Shimizu, et al., "Single Crystal Mo Solar Thermal Thruster for Microsatellites", 49thInternational Astronautical Federation Published by Elsevier Science , Vol. 44, Nos. 7-12, pp. 345-352, 1999.
 T.Nakamura, et al., "Solar Thermal Propulsion for Small Spacecraft", 41st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Tucson AZ, July 10-13, 2005.
 R. B. Diver and W. B. Stine, "A Compendium of Dish/Stirling Technology", Sandia National Laboratories Technical Report, SAND93- 7026 UC-236, Livermore, California, USA, January, 1994.
 M. De Carli, et al., "A Computational Capacity Resistance Model (CaRM) for vertical ground-coupled heat exchangers", International Journal of Renewable Energy, 35 (2010) 1537-1550, 2010.
 G. Colonna, et al., "A Model for Ammonia Solar Thermal Thruster", 38th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, Toronto, Ontario Canada, June 6-9, 2005.
 K. Bammert, A. Hegazy and P. Seifert, "Determination of Radiation Distribution in Solar Heated Receivers with Parabolic Dish Collectors",5th International Conference for Mechanical Power Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, October, 1984.
 C. C. Newton and A. Krothapalli, "A Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy System", Florida State University, 2007.
 P. R. Fraser, A. K. Sanford, "Stirling Dish System Performance Prediction Model", University of Wisconsin Madison, 2008.
 Y. A. Abdel-Hadi, A. Ding, H. J. Eichler and E.Sedlmayr, "Development of optical concentrator systems for directly solar pumped laser systems", Technical University of Berlin, Institute of Optics, Berlin, 2008.
 S. Kalogirou, "Solar Energy Engineering Processes and Systems", 1st Edition. California, USA, 2009.
 J. P. Holman, "Heat Transfer", 8th Edition.
 V. Wylen, et al, "Fundamentals of Thermodynamics", 5th Edition.
 J. D. Anderson, "Modern Compressible Flow", 2nd Edition.