Foreign Elements in the Methodologies of Usul Fiqh: Analyzing the Orientalist Thought
Authors: Ariyanti Mustapha
The development of Islamic jurisprudence since the first century of the hijra has fascinated many orientalists to explore the historiography of Islamic legislation. The practice of usul fiqh began during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and was continued by the companions as the legal reasoning due to the absence of the legal injunction in the Qur’an and Sunnah. The orientalists propagated that the Roman and Jewish legislation were transplanted into Islamic jurisprudence and it was the primary reason for its progression. We used qualitative and comparative methods to analyze the orientalists’ views. Results showed that many erroneous facts were propagated by Goldziher and Schacht by claiming the parallels between the principles, methodologies, and fundamental concepts in Islamic jurisprudence and Roman Provincial law. The orientalists claimed that Islamic jurisprudence was derived from the corpus of Jewish Mishnah and Ha-kol. These judgments are used by the orientalists to prove the inferiority of Islamic jurisprudence. Nevertheless, many evidences have proven that Islamic legislation is capable of developing independently without any foreign transplant.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 240
 Zafar Ishaq Ansari, “The Early Development of Islamic Fiqh in Kufah with Special Reference to the Works of Abu Yussuf and Shaybani”, Islamic Studies Journal 55, no. 1, Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University Islamabad, (2016), 149-191.
 Aayesha Rafiq, Influences, and Comparability: The Case of Islamic Law, Islamic Research Institute 55, no. 1, International Islamic University of Islamabad, (2016), 121-123.
 Ignaz Goldziher, Introdution to Islamic Theology and Law, terj. Andras dan Ruth Hamori, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981).
 Joseph Schacht, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950).
 Akh Minhaji, Joseph Schacht’s Contribution to The Study of Islamic Law, (Canada: Institute of Islamic Studies Mcgill University, 1992), 9-10.
 Ahmad Gumma Sidek, “Orientalism and Orientalists Between Extremism and Exaggeration,” American International Journal of Social Science 6, no. 3, (2017), 141.
 David S. Powers, “Wael Hallaq on the Origins of Islamic Law: A Review Essay,” Journal Islamic Law and Society 17, (2010), 114.
 Alan Watson, Legal Transplant: An Approach to Comparative Law, (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1974), 469.
 John W. Cairns, “Watson, Walton, and the History of Legal Transplants, Georgia International Journal 41, no. 3, (2013), 640.
 Irma Johanna Mosquera Valderrama, “Legal Transplants and Comparative Law,” International Law: Revista Colombiana de Derecho Internacional, no. 2, (2003), 263.
 Hasyim Sofyan Lahilote, “Legal Transplant in The Substance of The Authority of Religious Courts in Indonesia,” Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization 93, Manado State Institute of Islamic Studies, (2020), 135.
 Abdul Wahhab Khallaf, ‘Ilm al-Usul al-Fiqh Wa Khulasat Tarikh al-Tasyri’al-Islami, (Kaherah: Dar al-Qalam, 1942), 11-12.
 Wael Hallaq, A History of Islamic Legal Theories, An Introduction to Sunni Usul Fiqh, (United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 4.
 Theodore P. Ion, “Roman Law and Mohammedan Jurisprudence,” Michigan Law Review 6, no. 1, The Michigan Law Review Association, (1907), 47.
 Badran Abu al’Ayn Badran, Usul Fiqh al-Islami, (Kaherah: Muassah al-Shabab, 1984), 83.
 Muhammad Yusuf Faruqi, Development of Usul Fiqh: An Early Historical Perspective, (Pakistan: International Islamic University Islamabad, 1995), 14-17.
 Muhammad Hashim Kamali, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, 2nd edition, (Selangor: Ilmiah Publishers Sdn. Bhd., 1999), 44.
 Norman Calder, Studies in Early Muslim Jurisprudence, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), 200.
 Sitti Nurkhaerah, “Hubungan Tasyri’ Islam Dengan Undang-undang Romawi.” Jurnal Hunafa Studia Islamika 4, no. 4, Syariah STAIN Datokarama Palembang, (2018), 398.
 Judith Romney Wegner, “Islamic and Talmudic Jurisprudence: The Four Roots of Islamic Law and Their Talmudic Counterparts,” The American Journal of Legal History 26, no. 1, (2011), 36.
 Muhammad Salam Madkur, Madkhal al-Fiqh Islami, (Kaherah: Dar al-Qawmiyyah Lil Mutaba’ah, 1964), 73-74.
 Shakir Mustafa, al Tarikhul ‘Arabi Wa al Mu’arrikhun: Dirasah Fi Tatwur ‘Ilm al-Tarikh Wa Ma’rifati Rijalihi Fi Islam, 3rd edition, (Beirut: Dar al-‘Ilm, 1983), 73-76.
 Ulfat ‘Aziz Us Samad, Islam and Christianity, (Egypt: Al-Falah Foundation, 2003), 18.
 Muhammad Salam Madkur, Madkhal al-Fiqh al-Islami, (Kaherah: Dar al-Qawmiyyah Lil Mutaba’ah, 1964), 86.
 Patricia Crone, Roman, Provincial and Islamic Law: The Origins of the Islamic Patronate, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
 Snouck Hurgronje, Selected Works of C. Snouck Hurgronje, 1852-1936, (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1957), 249.
 Muhammad Yusuf Faruqi, Development of Usul al-Fiqh, (Pakistan: International Islamic University Islamabad, 1995), 2-4.
 ‘Ali Hasbillah, Usul Tasyri’ al Islami, (Kaherah: Dar al-Ma’arif, 1964), 78.
 Yusuf al-Qaradawy, An Introduction to Islam, (Egypt: Islamic Printing & Publishing Co., 1995), 165.
 Muhammad Salam Madkur, Madkhal al-Fiqh al-Islami, (Kaherah: Dar al-Qawmiyyah Lil Mutaba’ah, 1964), 88.
 Abd al-Mu’im al-Nimr, Al-Ijtihad, (Kaherah: Al-Hay’at al-Misriyyah al-‘Ammah al-Maktab, 1987), 80-81.
 Judith Romney Wegner, “Islamic and Talmudic Jurisprudence: The Four Roots of Islamic Law and Their Talmudic Counterparts,”The American Journal of Legal History 26, no. 1, (1982), 43.
 Ahmad Hassan, The Doctrine of Ijma’ in Islam, (Pakistan: Islamic Research Institute, 1991), 16-17.
 Harald Motzki, The Origins of Islam Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh Before The Classical Schools, (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2002).
 Muhammad Hashim Kamali, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, (Selangor: Ilmiah Publishers Sdn. Bhd., 1999), 56.
 Edward Said, Covering Islam, How the Media and the Experts Determine Hows We See the Rest of the World, London: Aitken, Stone &Wylie Ltd, 1981.
 Joseph Schacht, An Introduction to Islamic Law, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1982.