Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32468
Environmental Competency Framework: Development of a Modified 2-Tuple Delphi Approach

Authors: M. Bouri, L. Chraïbi, N. Sefiani


Currently, industries endeavor to align their environmental management system with the ISO 14001:2015 international standard, while preserving competitiveness and sustainability. Then, a key driver for these industries is to develop a skilled workforce that is able to implement, continuously improve and audit the environmental management system. The purpose of this paper is to provide an environmental competency framework that aims to identify, rank and categorize the competencies required by both the environmental managers and auditors. This competency framework is expected to be useful during competency assessment, recruitment, and training processes. To achieve this end, a modified 2-tuple Delphi approach is here proposed based on a combination of the modified Delphi approach and the 2-tuple linguistic representation model. The adopted approach is presented as numerous questionnaires that are spread over multiple rounds in order to obtain a consensus among the different Moroccan experts participating to this study.

Keywords: Competency framework, Delphi, environmental competency, 2-tuple.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 261


[1] A. Berger, R. E. Dickenson, and J. W. Kidson, Understanding Climate Change. American Geophysical Union, 1989.
[2] Environmental management systems — Requirements with guidance for use, ISO 14001:2015, 2015.
[3] C. Lévy-Leboyer, La gestion des compétences. Éditions d’Organisation. Groupe Eyrolles, 2009.
[4] Y. K. Sharma, S. K. Mangla, P. P. Patil, and S. Liu, “When challenges impede the process: For circular economy-driven sustainability practices in food supply chain,” Management Decision, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 995–1017, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1108/MD-09-2018-1056.
[5] J. Dorn and M. Pichlmair, “A competence management system for universities,” in 15th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2007.
[6] F. Draganidis and G. Mentzas, “Competency based management: a review of systems and approaches,” Inf. Manag. Comput. Secur., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 51–64, Jan. 2006, doi: 10.1108/09685220610648373.
[7] V. Vathanophas, “Competency requirements for effective job performance in Thai public sector,” Contemp. Manag. Research, vol. 3, no. 1, Jan. 2007, doi:
[8] G. Berio and M. Harzallah, “Knowledge management for competence management,” J. Univers. Knowl. Manag., vol. 0, no. 1, pp. 21–28, June 2005.
[9] R. E. Boyatzis, The competent manager: A model for effective performance. John Wiley & Sons, 1982.
[10] A. F. Marrelli, “An introduction to competency analysis and modeling,” Perform. Improv., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 8–17, May-June 1998, doi: 10.1002/pfi.4140370505.
[11] X. Boucher, E. Bonjour, and B. Grabot, “Formalisation and use of competencies for industrial performance optimisation: A survey,” Comput. Ind., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 98–117, Feb. 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.compind.2006.09.004.
[12] J. Burgoyne, “Creating the managerial portfolio: building on competency approaches to management development,” Manag. Educ. Develop., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 56–61, Apr. 1989, doi:
[13] C. Woodruffe, “What is meant by a competency?,” Leadersh. Organ. Develop. J., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 29–36, Jan. 1993, doi: 10.1108/eb053651.
[14] F. Belkadi, E. Bonjour, and M. Dulmet, “Competency characterisation by means of work situation modelling,” Comput. Ind., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 164–178, Feb. 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.compind.2006.09.005.
[15] G. Kelly, The psychology of personal constructs. Oxford, England: W. W. Norton, 1955.
[16] M. Harzallah and F. Vernadat, “IT-based competency modeling and management: from theory to practice in enterprise engineering and operations,” Comput. Ind., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 157–179, Jun. 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0166-3615(02)00003-9.
[17] A. Boumane, A. Talbi, and D. Bouami, “Quelle méthodologie pour identifier les compétences requises ?,” in Congrès Performance et Nouvelles Technologies en Maintenance, Marrakech, Maroc, 2005.
[18] N. Sefiani, A. Boumane, J. P. Campagne, and D. Bouami, “Démarche d’identification des compétences requises basée sur une approche fonctionnelle,” in 9ème congrès international de Génie Industriel (CIGI 2011), Saint Sauveur, Canada, 2011.
[19] J. M. Brill, M. J. Bishop, and A. E. Walker, “The competencies and characteristics required of an effective project manager: A web-based Delphi study,” Educ. Technol. Res. Dev., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 115–140, May 2006, doi:
[20] A. E. Liddell, S. Allan, and K. Goss, “Therapist competencies necessary for the delivery of compassion‐focused therapy: A Delphi study,” Psychol. Psychother., vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 156–176, June 2017, doi:
[21] L. M. Johnston, et al., “Identification of core competencies for an undergraduate food safety curriculum using a modified Delphi approach,” J. Food Sci. Educ., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 12–21, Jan. 2014, doi:
[22] J. S. Horng, H. Hsuan, L. Chih-Hsing, L. Lin, and T. Chang-Yen, “Competency analysis of top managers in the Taiwanese hotel industry,” Int. J. Hosp. Manag., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1044–1054, Dec. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.03.012.
[23] N. Dalkey and O. Helmer, “An experimental application of the Delphi method to the use of experts,” Manag. sci., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 458–467, Apr. 1963, doi:
[24] G. Rowe and G. Wright, “The Delphi technique as a forecasting tool: issues and analysis,” Int. J. forecast., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 353–375, Oct. 1999, doi:
[25] F. Herrera and L. Martinez, “A 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic representation model for computing with words,” IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 746–752, Dec. 2000, doi: 10.1109/91.890332.
[26] W. C. Ko, “Construction of house of quality for new product planning: A 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic approach,” Comput. Ind., vol. 73, pp. 117–127, Oct. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.compind.2015.07.008.
[27] O. Torağay and M. Arikan, “Performance evaluation of faculty departments by a Delphi method based on 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic representation model and TOPSIS,” Int. J. Basic Appl. Sci.,vol. 15, no. 05, p. 11, 2015.
[28] K. Laurell-Stenlund and S. A. Hörte, “Competence accounting: methods for measuring and valuing key-competencies,” in European Operations Management Association International Annual Conference, Managing Operations Networks, 1999.
[29] C. T. Chen and W. S. Tai, “Measuring the intellectual capital performance based on 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic information,” in 10th Annual Meeting of, Asia Pacific Region of Decision Sciences Institute (APDSI), 2005.
[30] L. Pei-de, “A novel method for hybrid multiple attribute decision making,” Knowl. Based Syst., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 388–391, Jul. 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.knosys.2009.02.001.
[31] G. Wei and X. Zhao, “Some dependent aggregation operators with 2-tuple linguistic information and their application to multiple attribute group decision making,” Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 5881–5886, Apr. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2011.11.120.
[32] G. Le Boterf, De la compétence à la navigation professionnelle. Les Ed. d’organisation. 1998.
[33] T. Chtioui, “Les fondements d’un modèle de mesure de la communication pour le contrôle de gestion : une étude Delphi,” in 27ème congrès de l'AFC, Poitier, France, 2007.
[34] International Organization for Standardization (ISO). “The ISO survey of management system standard certifications 2020.”
[Online]. Available:
[Accessed: 13-Jan-2022]
[35] J. J. Tarí, J. F. Molina-Azorín, and I. Heras, “Benefits of the ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 standards: A literature review,” J. Ind. Eng. Manag., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 297–322, 2012, doi: 10.3926/jiem.488.
[36] Q. A. Nguyen and L. Hens, “Environmental performance of the cement industry in Vietnam: the influence of ISO 14001 certification,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 96, pp. 362–378, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.09.032.
[37] A. Sadik and S. M. Rigar, “Performance financière et performance environnementale : (Cas des entreprises cotées certifiées ISO14001),” RCCA, vol. 2, no. 3, 2018.
[38] O. Boiral, L. Guillaumie, I. Heras‐Saizarbitoria, and C. V. T. Tene, “Adoption and outcomes of ISO 14001: A systematic review,” Int. J. Manag. Rev., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 411–432, 2018, doi:
[39] Environmental management systems — General guidelines on implementation, ISO 14004: 2016, 2016.
[40] M. P. Grevêche and L. Vaute, Au coeur de l’ISO 14001:2015 - Le système de management environnemental au centre de la stratégie. Éditions Afnor, 2015.
[41] F. Gillet-Goinard and C. Monar, Toute la fonction QSSE - Qualité-Santé-Sécurité-Environnement. Paris, Dunod, 2013.
[42] Guidelines for auditing management systems, ISO 19011:2018, 2018.