Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32468
The Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Foreign Students Studying in Hungary

Authors: Anita Kéri


Satisfying foreign student needs has been in the center of research interest in the past several years. Higher education institutions have been exploring factors influencing foreign student satisfaction to stay competitive on the educational market. Even though foreign student satisfaction and loyalty are topics investigated deeply in the literature, the academic years of 2020 and 2021 have revealed challenges never experienced before. With the COVID-19 pandemic, new factors have emerged that might influence foreign student satisfaction and loyalty in higher education. The aim of the current research is to shed lights on what factors influence foreign student satisfaction and loyalty in the post-pandemic educational era, and to reveal if the effects of factors influencing satisfaction and loyalty have changed compared to previous findings. Initial results show that students are less willing to participate in online surveys during and after the pandemic. The return rate of the survey instrument is below 5%. Results also reveal that there is a slight difference in what factors students deem important during pandemic times regarding their satisfaction and loyalty. The results of the current study help us determine what factors higher education institutions need to consider, when planning the future service affordances for their foreign students, that might influence their satisfaction and loyalty.

Keywords: COVID-19, foreign students, loyalty, pandemic, satisfaction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 204


[1] Tasso, A. F., Hisli Sahin, N., & San Roman, G. J. (2021). COVID-19 disruption on college students: Academic and socioemotional implications. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 13(1), 9-15.
[2] Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2020). Adaptability to a sudden transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Understanding the challenges for students. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology. Advance online publication.
[3] Resch, K., Amorim, J. P. (2021). Facilitating Intercultural Encounters with International Students: A Contribution to Inclusion and Social Network Formation. Social Inclusion, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 58-68.
[4] Alves, H., Raposo, M. (2009) The measurement of the construct satisfaction in higher education. Service Industries Journal, 29, 2, 203-218.
[5] Oliver, R. L. (1980) A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17, 460-469.
[6] Woodruff, R., Cadotte, E., Jenkins, R. (1983) Modeling Consumer Satisfaction Processes Using Experience-Based Norms. Journal of Marketing Research, 20, 3, 296-304.
[7] Zeithaml, V. (1981) How consumer evaluation processes differ between goods and services. J. H. Donnelly – W. R. George (Eds), Marketing Services, AMA, 9, 186-190.
[8] Cronin, J. J., Taylor, S. A. (1992) Measuring Service Quality: A Reexamination and Extension. Journal of Marketing, 56, 7, 55-68.
[9] Cronin, J. J., Taylor, S. A. (1994) SERVPERF Versus SERVQUAL: Reconciling Performance-based and Perception-Minus-Expectations Measurement of Service Quality. Journal of Marketing, 58, 1, 125-131.
[10] Fornell, C. (1992) A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experiene. Journal of Marketing, 56, 1, 6-21.
[11] Gronholdt, L., Martensen, A., Kristensen, K. (2000) The relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty: Cross-industry differences. Total Quality Management, 11, 4-6, 509-514.
[12] Yousapronpaiboon, K. (2014) SERVQUAL: Measuring Higher Education Service Quality in Thailand. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1088-1095.
[13] Chui, T. B., Ahmad, M. S., Bassim, F. A., Zaimi, A. (2016) Evaluation of Service Quality of Private Higher Education using Service Improvement Matrix. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, 132-140.
[14] Patterson, P., Romm, T., Hill, C. (1998) Consumer satisfaction as a process: a qualitative, retrospective longitudinal study of overseas students in Australia. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 16, 1, 135-157.
[15] Douglas, J., Davies, J. (2008) The development of a conceptual model of student satisfaction with their experience in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education. 16, 1, 19-35.
[16] Sultan, P., Wong, H. Y. (2013) Antecedents and consequences of service quality in a higher education context: A qualitative research approach. Quality Assurance in Education, 21, 1, 70‐95.
[17] Winke, P. (2017) Using focus groups to investigate study abroad theories and practice. System, 71, 73-83.
[18] Eurico, S. T., Silva, J. A. M., Valle, P. O. (2015) A model of graduates’ satisfaction and loyalty in tourism higher education: The role of employability. 16, 30-42.
[19] Savitha, S., Padmaja, P. V. (2017) Measuring service quality in higher education: application of ECSI model. International Journal of Commerce, Business and Management, 6, 5, Sep-Oct 2017.
[20] Faizan, A., Yuan, Z., Kashif, H., Pradeep, K., Nair, N., Ari, R. (2016) Does higher education service quality effect student satisfaction, image and loyalty? A study of international students in Malaysian public universities. Quality Assurance in Education, 24, 1.
[21] Randheer, K. (2015) Service quality performance scale in higher education: Culture as a new dimension. International Business Research. 8, 3, 29-41.
[22] Tsiligiris, V. (2011) EDUQUAL: measuring cultural influences on students’ expectations and perceptions in cross-border higher education. In: 4th Annual UK and Ireland Higher Education Institutional Research (HEIR) Conference, Kingston University, London, 16-17 June 2011, London.
[23] Noaman, A. Y., Ragab, A. H. M., Fayoumi, A. G., Khedra, A. M., Madbouly, A. I. (2013) HEQUAM: A Developed Higher Education Quality Assessment Model. Proceedings of the 2013 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, 739–746.
[24] Teeroovengadum, V., Kamalanabhan, T. J., Seebaluck, A. K. (2016) Measuring service quality in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 24, 2, 244-258.
[25] Reichheld, F. F. & Sasser, W. E., (1990). Zero defections: quality comes to services. Harvard Business Review, 68(5), 105–111.
[26] Reichheld, F. F., (1996). Learning from customer defections. Harvard Business Review, 74, 56-69.
[27] Oliver, R. L. (1999). Fundamental Issues and Directions for Marketing. Journal of Marketing, 63, 33–44.
[28] Reichheld, F. F., Markey Jr., R. G. & Hopton, C. (2000). The loyalty effect – the relationship between loyalty and profits. European Business Journal, 12(3), 134–139.
[29] Reichheld, F. F. (2003). The one number you need to grow. Harvard Business Review, 81(12), 46-54.
[30] Giner, G. R., & Peralt Rillo, A. (2016). Structural equation modeling of co-creation and its influence on the student’s satisfaction and loyalty towards university. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 291, 257–263.
[31] Jager, J. & Gbadamosi, G. (2013). Predicting students’ satisfaction through service quality in higher education. International Journal of Management Education, 11, 107-118.
[32] Huybers, T., Louviere, J. & Islam, T. (2015). What determines student satisfaction with university subjects? A choice-based approach. Journal of Choice Modelling, 17, 52-65.
[33] a Wiers-Jenssen, J., Stensaker, B. & Grogaard, J. B. (2002). Student satisfaction: towards an empirical deconstruction of the concept. Quality in Higher Education, 8(2), 183-195.
[34] Yang, Z., Becerik-Gerber, B. & Mino, L. (2013). A study on student perceptions of higher education classrooms: Impact of classroom attributes on student satisfaction and performance. Building Environment, 70, 171-188.
[35] Mihanovic, Z., Batinic, A. B. & Pavicic, J. (2016) The link between students’ satisfaction with faculty, overall students’ satisfaction with student life and student performances. Review of Innovation and Competitiveness: A Journal of Economic and Social Research, 2(1), Ožujak 2016.
[36] Costello, E., Brown, M., Donlon, E. et al. ‘The Pandemic Will Not be on Zoom’: A Retrospective from the Year 2050. Postdigit Sci Education 2, 619–627 (2020).
[37] Rashid, A., Yunus, M. and Wahi, W. (2019) Using Padlet for Collaborative Writing among ESL Learners. Creative Education, 10, 610-620. doi: 10.4236/ce.2019.103044.
[38] Goudeau, S., Sanrey, C., Stanczak, A., Manstead, A., & Darnon, C. (2021). Why lockdown and distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to increase the social class achievement gap. In Nature Human Behaviour (Vol. 5, Issue 10, pp. 1273–1281). Nature Research.
[39] Greenland, S., Saleem, M., Misra, R., & Bhatia, B. (2021). Measuring COVID-19’s impact on international HE students and intervention satisfaction: implications for marketing theory and practice. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education.
[40] a Kim, T., Lim, S., Yang, M., & Park, S. J. (2021). Making sense of schooling during COVID-19: Crisis as opportunity in Korean schools. Comparative Education Review, 65(4), 617–639.
[41] Owlia, M. S., Aspinwall, E. M. (1996) A framework for the dimensions of quality in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 4, 2, 12-20.
[42] Lenton, P. (2015) Determining student satisfaction: An economic analysis of the national student survey. Economics of Education Review, 47, 118-127.