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Prominent Lipid Parameters Correlated with Trunk-to-Leg and Appendicular Fat Ratios in Severe Pediatric Obesity

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

Alterations in lipid parameters as well as in the fat distribution of the body are noteworthy during the evaluation of obesity stages. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are basic lipid fractions. Fat deposited in trunk and extremities may give considerable amount of information. Ratios such as trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLFR) and trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAFR) are derived from distinct fat distribution in these areas. In this study, lipid fractions and TLFR as well as TAFR were evaluated and the distinctions among healthy, obese (OB) and morbid obese (MO) groups were investigated. Three groups [normal body mass index (N-BMI), OB, MO] were constituted. Ages and sexes of the groups were matched. The study protocol was approved by the Non-interventional Ethics Committee of Tekirdag Namik Kemal University. Written informed consent forms were obtained from the parents of the participants. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, head circumference, neck circumference) were recorded during the physical examination. BMI values were calculated. Total, trunk, leg and arm fat mass values were obtained by TANITA Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. These values were used to calculate TLFR and TAFR. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) were measured. Routine biochemical tests including lipid fractions were performed. Data were evaluated using SPSS software. p value smaller than 0.05 was accepted as significant. There was no difference among the age values and gender ratios of the groups. Any statistically significant difference was not observed in terms of DBP, TLFR as well as serum lipid fractions. Higher SBP values were measured both in OB and MO children than those with N-BMI. TAFR showed a significant difference between N-BMI and OB groups. Statistically significant increases were detected between insulin values of N-BMI group and OB as well as MO groups. There were bivariate correlations between LDL and TLFR as well as TAFR values in MO group. When adjusted for SBP and DBP, partial correlations were calculated for LDL-TLFR as well as LDL-TAFR. Much stronger partial correlations were obtained for the same couples upon controlling for TRG and HDL-C. Much stronger partial correlations observed in MO children emphasize the potential transition from morbid obesity to metabolic syndrome. These findings have concluded that LDL-C may be suggested as a discriminating parameter between OB and MO children.

Keywords: Children, lipid parameters, obesity, trunk-to-leg fat ratio, trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio.

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