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Theory about the Gebel El-Arak Knife: An Egyptian Knife with Canaanite Relief

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef


Gebel Al-Arak knife with its fine engravings on the two faces of the handle is the proof about the relationship between the Egyptians and the Canaanites during Naqada II. The Canaanites lived with the Egyptians in Abydos and they fought each other for power and the war scene on the knife prove that the Canaanites and the Egyptians wore the same outfit and they are only different by their hair style. The research discusses and analyzes many primary sources in Egypt, like wall inscriptions and palettes that prove the strong land relation and sea trade between Canaan and Egypt during Chalcolithic Age (4500-3500 BC). While no primary sources in Egypt prove the relationship between Egypt and Mesopotamia in the period to which the knife of Gebel Al-Arak belongs, between 3300-3100 BC, there were no battles or maritime trade exchanges between them. The engravings on the knife belong to the Canaanites and their God El (Master of Animals) and describing their victory over the Egyptians in this amphibious battle. The research aims to prove a theory that the Gebel Al-Arak knife is an Egyptian-made knife and the influences of the knife engravings were Canaanite, not Mesopotamian. The methodology of the study is historical methodology which is used to gather and analyze evidence and various historical data retrieved from history and interpret what the evidence reveals about things that occurred in history.

Keywords: Canaan, Egypt, Gebel el-Arak Knife, Louvre.

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