Slow Pyrolysis of Biowastes: Environmental, Exergetic, and Energetic Assessment
Slow pyrolysis of a pellet of pistachio waste was studied using a lab-scale stainless-steel reactor. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates (5, 10, and 15 K/min). A 3-E (environmental, exergetic, and energetic) analysis for the processing of 20 kg/h of biowaste was carried out. Experimental results showed that biochar and gas yields decreased with an increase in the heating rate (43% to 36% and 28% to 24%, respectively), while the bio-oil yield increased (29% to 40%). Finally, from the 3-E analysis and the experimental results, it can be suggested that an increase in the heating rate resulted in a higher pyrolysis exergetic efficiency (70%), due to an increase of the bio-oil yield with high-energy content.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 324
 Y. Chen, “Biomass to Fuels: Thermo-chemical or Bio-chemical Conversion,” Ferment. Technol. 01, 2012, 7972.
 D. Zalazar-García, G.E. Feresin, R.A. Rodriguez, “Optimal operation variables of phenolic compounds extractions from pistachio industry waste (Pistacia vera var. Kerman) using the response surface method,”, Biomass Convers. Biorefinery, 2020.
 D. Zalazar-García, E. Torres, L. Rodriguez-Ortiz, Y. Deng, J. Soria, V. Bucalá, R. Rodriguez, G. Mazza, “Cleaner and sustainable processes for extracting phenolic compounds from bio-waste,” J. Environ. Manage. 273, 2020, 111154.
 D. Vyas, F. Sayyad, M. Khardiwar, S. Kumar, “Physicochemical Properties of Briquettes from Different Feed Stock, Curr,” World Environ. 10, 2015, pp. 263–269.
 X. Zhang, Q. Che, X. Cui, Z. Wei, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. Wang, H. Chen, “Application of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration by a moving bed: Characteristics of products and energy efficiency analysis,” Bioresour Technol. 254, 2018, pp.130–138.
 V. Bucalá, H. Saito, J.B. Howard, W.A. Peters, “Products Compositions and Release Rates from Intense Thermal Treatment of Soil,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 35, 1996, pp. 2725–2734.
 L. Rodriguez Ortiz, E. Torres, D. Zalazar, H. Zhang, R. Rodriguez, G. Mazza, “Influence of pyrolysis temperature and bio-waste composition on biochar characteristics,” Renew Energy. 155, 2020, pp. 837–847.
 E. Torres, L. Rodriguez-Ortiz, D. Zalazar-García, M. Echegaray, R. Rodriguez, H. Zhang, G. Mazza, “4-E (Environmental, Economic, Energetic and Exergetic) analysis of 1 slow pyrolysis of lignocellulosic waste,” Renew Energy. 161, 2020, pp. 296–307.
 F.K. Zisopoulos, F.J. Rossier-Miranda, A.J. van der Goot, R.M. Boom, “The use of exergetic indicators in the food industry – A review,” Crit. Rev. Food Sci Nutr. 57, 2017, pp. 197–211.
 H. Bi, C. Wang, Q. Lin, X. Jiang, C. Jiang, L. Bao, “Pyrolysis characteristics, artificial neural network modeling and environmental impact of coal gangue and biomass by TG-FTIR,” Sci. Total Environ. 751, 2021, 142293.
 D. Barry, C. Barbiero, C. Briens, F. Berruti, “Pyrolysis as an economical and ecological treatment option for municipal sewage sludge,” Biomass and Bioenergy. 122, 2019, pp. 472–480.
 F. Cheng, H. Luo, L.M. Colosi, “Slow pyrolysis as a platform for negative emissions technology: An integration of machine learning models, life cycle assessment, and economic analysis,” Energy Convers. Manag. 223, 2020, 113258.
 ASTM D3173-87, “Standard Test Method for Moisture in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke,” 1996.
 ASTM-D3172-89, “Stand. Pract. Prox. Anal. Coal Coke,” 2002.
 C. Sheng, J.L.T. Azevedo, “Estimating the higher heating value of biomass fuels from basic analysis data,” Biomass and Bioenergy. 28, 2005, pp. 499–507.
 A. Fernandez, J. Soria, R. Rodriguez, J. Baeyens, G. Mazza, “Macro-TGA steam-assisted gasification of lignocellulosic wastes,” J. Environ. Manage. 233, 2019, pp. 626–635.
 N. Cerone, F. Zimbardi, L. Contuzzi, J. Baleta, D. Cerinski, R. Skvorčinskienė, “Experimental investigation of syngas composition variation along updraft fixed bed gasifier,” Energy Convers. Manag. 221 2020, 113116.
 M. Echegaray, D.Z. García, G. Mazza, R. Rodriguez, “Air-steam gasification of five regional lignocellulosic wastes: Exergetic evaluation, Sustain,” Energy Technol. Assessments. 31, 2019, pp. 115–123.
 L. Jankowiak, J. Jonkman, F.J. Rossier-Miranda, A.J. van der Goot, R.M. Boom, “Exergy driven process synthesis for isoflavone recovery from okara,” Energy. 74, 2014, pp. 471–483.
 Y. Zhang, G. Ji, D. Ma, C. Chen, Y. Wang, W. Wang, A. Li, “Exergy and energy analysis of pyrolysis of plastic wastes in rotary kiln with heat carrier,” Process Saf. Environ. Prot. 142, 2020, pp. 203–211.
 İ. Demiral, N. Gülmezoglu, S. Sensoz, “Production of Biofuel from Soft Shell of Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.),” Chem. Eng. Commun. 1–2, 2009.
 N. Khuenkaeo, N. Tippayawong, “Bio-oil Production from Ablative Pyrolysis of Corncob Pellets in a Rotating Blade Reactor,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 159, 2018.
 A.C. Louwes, L. Basile, R. Yukananto, J.C. Bhagwandas, E.A. Bramer, G. Brem, “Torrefied biomass as feed for fast pyrolysis: An experimental study and chain analysis,” Biomass and Bioenergy. 105, 2017, pp. 116–126.
 A. Anca-Couce, “Reaction mechanisms and multi-scale modelling of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 53, 2016, pp. 41–79.
 J. Maroušek, O. Strunecký, V. Stehel, “Biochar farming: defining economically perspective applications,” Clean Technol. Environ. Policy. 21, 2019, pp. 1389–1395.
 H. Yu, W. Zou, J. Chen, H. Chen, Z. Yu, J. Huang, H. Tang, X. Wei, B. Gao, “Biochar amendment improves crop production in problem soils: A review,” J. Environ. Manage. 232, 2019, pp. 8–21.
 J. Puente Torres, H. Crespo Sariol, J. Yperman, Á. Brito Sauvanell, R. Carleer, J. Navarro Campa, ç“A novel X-ray radiography approach for the characterization of granular activated carbons used in the rum production,” J. Anal. Sci. Technol. 9, 2018, 1.
 L. Li, Z. Yao, S. You, C.-H. Wang, C. Chong, X. Wang, Optimal design of negative emission hybrid renewable energy systems with biochar production, Appl. Energy. 243, 2019, pp. 233–249.