Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32231
Literature Review on Metallurgical Properties of Ti/Al Weld Joint Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, Naresh Subramania Warrier, S. Elavarasi


Several situations arise in industrial practice which calls for joining of dissimilar metals. With increasing demand in the application requirements, dissimilar metal joining becomes inevitable in modern engineering industries. The metals employed are the structure for effective and utilization of the special properties of each metal. The purpose of this paper is to present the research and development status of titanium (Ti) and aluminium (Al) dissimilar alloys weldment by the researchers worldwide. The detailed analysis of problems faced during welding of dissimilar metal joint for Ti/Al metal combinations are discussed. Microstructural variations in heat affected zone (HAZ), fusion zone (FZ), Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer and surface fracture of weldments are analysed. Additionally, mechanical property variations and microstructural feature have been studied by the researchers. The paper provides a detailed literature review of Ti/Al dissimilar metal joint microchemistry and property variation across the weldment.

Keywords: Laser beam welding, titanium, aluminium, metallurgical properties.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 227


[1] Michael. K, Florian. W, Frank. V, 2005, ‘Laser processing of Al–Ti-tailored blanks’. Opt. Laser Eng. 43, 1021–1035.
[2] Bondar. A.A, Witusiewicz. V.T, Hecht. U, Remez. M.V, Voblikov. V.M, Tsyganenko. N.I, Yevich. Y.I, Podrezov. Y.M, Velikanova. T.Y, 2011, ‘Structure and Properties of Ti–Al Alloys Doped Wit-*/h Niobium and Tantalum’. Powder Metall. Metal Ceram, 50, 7–8.
[3] Luo. J.G, Acoff. V.L, 2000, ‘Interfacial Reactions of Ti and Al during Diffusion Welding’. Suppl. Weld. J, 79, 239s–243s.
[4] Dressler. U, Biallas. G, Mercado. U.A, 2009, ‘Friction stir welding of Ti alloy TiAl6V4 to aluminium alloy AA2024-T3’. Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 526, 113–117.
[5] Chen. Y, Liu. C, Liu. L, 2011, ‘Study on the Joining of Ti and Al Dissimilar Alloys by Friction Stir Welding’. Open Mater. Sci. J. 5, 256–261.
[6] G. Casalino, 2017, ‘Advances in Welding Metal Alloys, Dissimilar Metals and Additively Manufactured Parts’. Metals, 7, Issue 2, 1 February, Article number 32
[7] M. Mazar Atabaki, N. Yazdian, R. Kovacevic, 2016, ‘Partial penetration laser-based welding of aluminum alloy (AA 5083-H32)’. Optik 127, 6782–6804.
[8] Atabaki, M.M., Yazdian, N., Ma, J., Kovacevic, R 2016, ‘High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration’. Optics and Laser Technology, 83, 1-12.
[9] L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, D. Yapp, V. Kumar, C. J. Kong, 2007, ‘Welding with high power fiber lasers–a preliminary study’. Materials and design, 28, 1231-1237.
[10] Chen. Y, Chen. S, Li. L, 2010, ‘Influence of interfacial reaction layer morphologies on crack initiation and propagation in Ti/Al joint by laser welding–brazing’. Mater. Des. 31, 227–233.
[11] Chen. S, Li. L, Chen. Y, Dai. J, Huang. J, 2011, ‘Improving interfacial reaction nonhomogeneity during laser welding–brazing Al to Ti’. Mater. Des. 32, 4408–4416.
[12] Casalino. G, Mortello. M, Campanelli. S, 2015, ‘Ytterbium fiber laser welding of Ti6Al4V alloy’. J. Manuf. Process. 20, 250–256.
[13] Lee, Su-Jin, Nakamura, Hiroshi, Kawahito, Yousuke, Katayama, Seiji 2013, ‘Weldability of Ti and Al Dissimilar Metals Using Single-Mode Fiber Laser’, Journal of Laser Micro Nano Engineering, vol. 8.2, pp. 149-154.
[14] Casalino. G, Mortello. M, 2016, ‘Modeling and experimental analysis of fiber laser offset welding of Al-Ti butt joints’. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 83, 89–98.
[15] Casalino. G, Mortello. M, Peyre. P, 2015, ‘Yb-YAG laser offset welding of AA5754 and T40 butt joint’. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 223, 139–149.
[16] Leo. P, D’Ostuni. S, Casalino. G, 2018, ‘Low temperature heat treatments of AA5754-Ti6Al4V dissimilar laser welds: Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties’. Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 109–118.
[17] Casalino. G, Guglielmi. P, Lorusso. V.D, Mortello. M, Peyre. P, Sorgente. D, 2017, ‘Laser offset welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy to 316 stainless steel’. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 242, 49–59.
[18] Casalino. G, Leo. P, Mortello. M, Perulli. P, Varone. A, 2017, ‘Effects of laser offset and hybrid welding on microstructure and IMC in Fe-Al dissimilar welding’. Metals. 7, 282.
[19] Wang. H, Feng. B, Song. G, Liu. L, 2018, ‘Laser–arc hybrid welding of high-strength steel and aluminum alloy joints with brass filler’. Mater. Manuf. Processe. 33, 735–742.
[20] NI Jia-ming, LI Li-qun, CHEN Yan-bin, FENG Xiao-song, 2007, ‘Characteristics of laser welding-brazing joint of Al/Ti dissimilar alloys’, The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals, Vol.17 No.4.
[21] Giuseppe Casalino, Sonia D’Ostuni, Pasquale Guglielmi, Paola Leo, Michelangelo Mortello, Gianfranco Palumbo, Antonio Piccininni, 2017, ‘Mechanical and microstructure analysis of AA6061 and Ti6Al4V fiber laser butt weld’, Optik, vol.148, pp. 151-156.
[22] Shuhai Chen, B, Liqun Lib, Yanbin Chenb & Jihua Huanga 2011, ‘Joining mechanism of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys during laser welding-brazing process’, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509, Issue 3, 21, pp. 891-898.
[23] S. H. Chen, L Q. Li, Y B. Chen, 2008, ‘Interfacial reaction mode and its influence on tensile strength in laser joining Al alloy to Ti alloy’, Materials Science and Technology, mst8587.3d.
[24] Sujin Lee, Seiji Katayama & Jong-Do Kim 2014, ‘Microstructural behaviour on weld fusion zone of Al-Ti and Ti-Al dissimilar lap welding using single-mode fiber laser’, Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering, vol. 38, no. 2 pp. 133-139.
[25] Xiongfeng Zhou, Jian Duan, Fan Zhang, Shunshun Zhong, 2019, ‘The Study on Mechanical Strength of Titanium-Aluminum Dissimilar Butt Joints by Laser Welding-Brazing Process’, Materials, 12, 712.
[26] Song. Z.H, Nakata. K, Wu. A, Liao. J.S, 2013, ‘Interfacial microstructure and mechanical property of Ti6Al4V/A6061 dissimilar joint by direct laser brazing without filler metal and groove’. Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 560, 111–120.
[27] Vaidya. WV, Horstman. V, Ventzke. V, Petrovski. B, Koçak. M, Kocik. R, Tempus. G 2009, ‘Structure-property investigations on a laser beam welded dissimilar joint of aluminium AA6056 and titanium Ti6Al4V for aeronautical applications. Part II: Resistance to fatigue crack propagation and fracture’, Materials Science & engineering Technology, vol. 40, Issue 10, pp. 769-779.
[28] Tomashchuk. P, Sallamand. E, Cicala. P, Peyre. D, Grevey, 2014, ‘Direct keyhole laser welding of aluminum alloy AA5754 to titanium alloy Ti6Al4V’, Journal of Materials Processing Technology - Vol. 217, p.96–104.
[29] Shuhai Chen, Li-Qun LI, Yan-bin Chen, De-Jian LIU, 2010, ‘Si diffusion behavior during laser welding-brazing of Al alloy and Ti alloy with Al-12Si filler wire’, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 20, Issue 1, pp. 64-70.
[30] Xin Xue, António Pereira, Gabriela Vincze, Xinyong Wu, Juan Liao, 2019, ‘Interfacial Characteristics of Dissimilar Ti6Al4V/AA6060 Lap Joint by Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding’, Metals, 9, 71.
[31] Marina Bulanova, Ludmila Tretyachenko, Marina Golovkova, Konstantin Meleshevich 2004, ‘Phase equilibria in the α-Ti-Al-Si region of the Ti-Si-Al system’, Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion’, vol. 25, Issue. 3, pp. 209-229.
[32] Ming Gao, Cong Chen, Yunze Gu and Xiaoyan Zeng, 2014, ‘Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Laser Arc Hybrid Welded Dissimilar Al and Ti Alloys’, Materials, 7, 1590-1602.
[33] Lv. S.X, Jing. X.J, Huang. Y.X, Xu. Y.Q, 2012, ‘Investigation on TIG arc welding-brazing of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys with Al based fillers. Sci. Technol. Weld. Join. 17, 519–524.
[34] Da Quan Zhang, Jin Li, Hyung Goun Joo, Kang Yong Lee, 2009, ‘Corrosion properties of Nd:YAG laser–GMA hybrid welded AA6061 Al alloy and its microstructure’, Corrosion science, vol.51, pp.1399-1404.
[35] Patrice Peyrea, Laurent Berthea, Morgan Dala, Sébastien Pouzeta, Pierre Sallamandb, Iryna Tomashchuk, 2014, ‘Generation and characterization of T40/A5754 interfaces with lasers’, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 214, 1946–1953.
[36] Lee, Sujin, Nakamura, Hiroshi, Kawahito Yousuke, Katayama Seji, 2013, ‘Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Single-Mode Fiber Laser Lap-Welded Joint in Ti and Al Dissimilar Metals’, Transactions of JWRI, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 17-21.
[37] Giuseppe Casalino, Sonia D’Ostuni, Pasquale Guglielmi, Paola Leo, Gianfranco Palumbo, Antonio Piccininni, 2018, ‘Off-Set and Focus Effects on Grade 5 Titanium to 6061 Aluminum Alloy Fiber Laser Weld’, Materials, 11, 2337.
[38] Shant Prakash Gupta 2002, ‘Intermetallic compounds in diffusion couples of Ti with an Al-Si eutectic alloy’, Materials Characterization, vol.49, Issue 4, pp. 321-330.
[39] Yanbin Chen, Shuhai Chen, Liqun Li, 2008, ‘Effects of heat input on microstructure and mechanical property of Al/Ti joints by rectangular spot laser welding-brazing method’, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, DOI 10.1007/s00170-008-1837-2.
[40] Cabibbo, M, Marrone, S, Quadrini, E, 2005, ‘Mechanical and microstructural characteristics of laser welded titanium–aluminium joints’, Weld Int, vol. 19, pp. 125 -129.
[41] Zhihua Song, Kazuhiro Nakata, Aiping Wub, Jinsun Liao, 2012, ‘Interfacial microstructure and mechanical property of Ti6Al4V/A6061 dissimilar joint by direct laser brazing without filler metal and groove’, Materials Science & Engineering A 560, 111–120.
[42] Tomashchuk. P, Sallamand. A, Méasson. E, Cicala. M, 2017, ‘Aluminum to titanium laser welding-brazing in V-shaped grooveI’. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 245, pp.24-36.
[43] Mohammed Naeem, “Microwelding performance comparison between a low power (125W) pulase ND:YAG laser and a low power (100- 200W) single mode fiber laser”, (2008). Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific International Conference on Application of Lasers and Optics.
[44] Shuhai Chen, Liqun Li, Yanbin Chen, and Jihua Huang, “Joining mechanism of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys during laser welding-brazing process”, (2011). Journal of Alloys and Compounds 509, 891–898.