Incentive Policies to Promote Green Infrastructure in Urban Jordan
Authors: Zayed Freah Zeadat
The wellbeing of urban dwellers is strongly associated with the quality and quantity of green infrastructure. Nevertheless, urban green infrastructure is still lagging in many Arab cities, and Jordan is no exception. The capital city of Jordan, Amman, is becoming more urban dense with limited green spaces. The unplanned urban growth in Amman has caused several environmental problems such as urban heat islands, air pollution and lack of green spaces. This study aims to investigate the most suitable drivers to leverage the implementation of urban green infrastructure in Jordan through qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative research includes an extensive literature review to discuss the most common drivers used internationally to promote urban green infrastructure implementation in the literature. The quantitative study employs a questionnaire survey to rank the suitability of each driver. Consultants, contractors and policymakers were invited to fill the research questionnaire according to their judgments and opinions. Relative Importance Index has been used to calculate the weighted average of all drivers and the Kruskal-Wallis test to check the degree of agreement among groups. This study finds that research participants agreed that indirect financial incentives (i.e., tax reductions, reduction in stormwater utility fee, reduction of interest rate, density bonus etc.) are the most effective incentive policy whilst granting sustainability certificate policy is the least effective driver to ensure widespread of UGI is elements in Jordan.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 325
 Liberalesso, T., Cruz, C. O., Silva, C. M. and Manso, M., 2020. Green infrastructure and public policies: An international review of green roofs and green walls incentives. Land Use Policy, 96, p.104693.
 Cameron, R. W., Taylor, J. E. and Emmett, M. R., 2014. What's 'cool’in the world of green façades? How plant choice influences the cooling properties of green walls. Building and environment, 73, pp.198-207.
 Ezema, I. C., Ediae, O. J. and Ekhae, E. N., 2016. Prospects, Barriers and Development Control Implications in the use of Green Roofs in Lagos State, Nigeria. Covenant Journal of Research in the Built Environment, 4(2).
 Klemm, W., Lenzholzer, S. and van den Brink, A., 2017. Developing green infrastructure design guidelines for urban climate adaptation. Journal of Landscape Architecture, 12(3), pp.60-71
 Vijayaraghavan, K., 2016. Green roofs: A critical review on the role of components, benefits, limitations and trends. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 57, pp.740-752.
 Al-Zu'bi, M. and Mansour, O., 2017. Water, energy, and rooftops: integrating green roof systems into building policies in the Arab region. Environment and Natural Resources Research, 7(2), pp.11-36.
 Goussous, J., Siam, H. and Alzoubi, H., 2015. Prospects of green roof technology for energy and thermal benefits in buildings: Case of Jordan. Sustainable cities and Society, 14, pp.425-440.
 Wong, J. K. W. and Lau, L. S. K., 2013. From the ‘urban heat island’to the ‘green island’? A preliminary investigation into the potential of retrofitting green roofs in Mongkok district of Hong Kong. Habitat International, 39, pp.25-35.
 Zhang, X., Shen, L., Tam, V. W. and Lee, W. W. Y., 2012. Barriers to implement extensive green roof systems: a Hong Kong study. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 16(1), pp.314-319.
 Mahdiyar, A., Mohandes, S. R., Durdyev, S., Tabatabaee, S. and Ismail, S., 2020. Barriers to green roof installation: An integrated fuzzy-based MCDM approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 269, p.122365.
 Hossain, M. A., Shams, S., Amin, M., Reza, M. S. and Chowdhury, T. U., 2019. Perception and barriers to implementation of intensive and extensive green roofs in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Buildings, 9(4), p.79.
 Subaskar, C., Vidyaratne, H. and Melagoda, D. G., Applicability Of Green Roofs In Sri Lankan High-Rise Buildings: Drivers And Barriers. In The 7 World Construction Symposium-2018 th.
 Brudermann, T. and Sangkakool, T., 2017. Green roofs in temperate climate cities in Europe–An analysis of key decision factors. Urban forestry & urban greening, 21, pp.224-234.
 Tam, V. W., Wang, J. and Le, K. N., 2016. Thermal insulation and cost effectiveness of green-roof systems: An empirical study in Hong Kong. Building and environment, 110, pp.46-54.
 Rahman, S. R. A., Ahmad, H. and Rosley, M. S. F., 2013. Green roof: Its awareness among professionals and potential in Malaysian market. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, pp.443-453.
 Cerón-Palma, I., Sanyé-Mengual, E., Oliver-Solà, J., Montero, J. I. and Rieradevall, J., 2012. Barriers and opportunities regarding the implementation of Rooftop Eco. Greenhouses (RTEG) in Mediterranean cities of Europe. Journal of Urban Technology, 19(4), pp.87-103.
 Andric, I., Kamal, A. and Al-Ghamdi, S. G., 2020. Efficiency of green roofs and green walls as climate change mitigation measures in extremely hot and dry climate: Case study of Qatar. Energy Reports, 6, pp.2476-2489.
 Romanova, A., Horoshenkov, K. V. and Hurrell, A., 2019. An application of a parametric transducer to measure acoustic absorption of a living green wall. Applied Acoustics, 145, pp.89-97.
 Collins, R., Schaafsma, M. and Hudson, M. D., 2017. The value of green walls to urban biodiversity. Land Use Policy, 64, pp.114-123.
 Azkorra, Z., Pérez, G., Coma, J., Cabeza, L. F., Burés, S., Álvaro, J. E., Erkoreka, A. and Urrestarazu, M., 2015. Evaluation of green walls as a passive acoustic insulation system for buildings. Applied Acoustics, 89, pp.46-56.
 Koch, K., Ysebaert, T., Denys, S. and Samson, R., 2020. Urban heat stress mitigation potential of green walls: A review. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, p.126843.
 Chiquet, C., Dover, J. W. and Mitchell, P., 2013. Birds and the urban environment: the value of green walls. Urban Ecosystems, 16(3), pp.453-462.
 Chen, X., Shuai, C., Chen, Z. and Zhang, Y., 2019. What are the root causes hindering the implementation of green roofs in urban China?. Science of the Total Environment, 654, pp.742-750.
 Abdin, a., el deeb, k.h.a.l.i.d. and am al-abbasi, s.h.a.h.a.d., 2018. Effect of green roof design on energy saving in existing residential buildings under semi-arid Mediterranean climate (Amman as a case study. jes. journal of engineering sciences, 46(6), pp.738-753.
 Al Jadaa, D., Raed, A. A. and Taleb, H., 2019. Assessing the Thermal Effectiveness of Implementing Green Roofs in the Urban Neighborhood. Jordan Journal of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, 13(3).
 Chen, C. F., 2013. Performance evaluation and development strategies for green roofs in Taiwan: A review. Ecological engineering, 52, pp.51-58.
 Coma, J., Pérez, G., de Gracia, A., Burés, S., Urrestarazu, M. and Cabeza, L.F., 2017. Vertical greenery systems for energy
 Khan, H. S. and Asif, M., 2017. Impact of green roof and orientation on the energy performance of buildings: A case study from Saudi Arabia. Sustainability, 9(4), p.640.
 Ismail, Z., Abd Aziz, H., Nasir, N. M. and Taib, M. Z. M., 2012, December. Obstacles to adopt green roof in Malaysia. In 2012 IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER) (pp. 357-361). IEEE.
 Contesse, M., van Vliet, B. J. M., Lenhart, J., 2018. Is urban agriculture urban green space? A comparison of policy arrangements for urban green space and urban agriculture in Santiago de Chile. Land Use Policy 71 (October), 566–577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.11.006.
 Ismail, W. W., Ahmad, S. S., Hashim, A. E., Isnin, Z. and Ali, M.I., 2010. Perception towards green roof in Malaysia. Proceedings of MiCRA, pp.97-105.
 Pojani, D. and Stead, D., 2015. Sustainable urban transport in the developing world: beyond megacities. Sustainability, 7(6), pp.7784-7805.
 Sangkakool, T., Techato, K., Zaman, R. and Brudermann, T., 2018. Prospects of green roofs in urban Thailand–A multi-criteria decision analysis. Journal of cleaner production, 196, pp.400-410.
 Mayrand, F. and Clergeau, P., 2018. Green roofs and green walls for biodiversity conservation: a contribution to urban connectivity?. Sustainability, 10(4), p.985.
 Ismail, W. Z. W., Abdullah, M. N., Hashim, H. and Rani, W. S. W., 2018, September. An overview of green roof development in Malaysia and a way forward. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2016, No. 1, p. 020058). AIP Publishing LLC.
 Berardi, U., GhaffarianHoseini, A. and GhaffarianHoseini, A., 2014. State-of-the-art analysis of the environmental benefits of green roofs. Applied energy, 115, pp.411-428.
 Carter, T. and Fowler, L., 2008. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments. Environmental management, 42(1), pp.151-164.
 Getter, K. L. and Rowe, D. B., 2006. The role of extensive green roofs in sustainable development. HortScience, 41(5), pp.1276-1285.
 Kohler M, Keeley M (2005) Green Roof Technology and Policy Development. In: Marisa Arpels (Managing Editor). Green Roofs: Ecological Design and Construction, Schiffer Books.
 Brenneisen, S., 2002, September. Green roofs-how nature returns to the city. In International Conference on Urban Horticulture 643 (pp. 289-293).
 Okopi, M., 2021, March. Urbanization and Sustainable Growth of Urban Kano, Nigeria. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 665, No. 1, p. 012063). IOP Publishing.
 Dixit, S., Mandal, S. N., Thanikal, J. V. and Saurabh, K., 2019. Study of Significant Factors Affecting Construction Productivity Using Relative Importance Index in Indian Construction Industry. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 140, p. 09010). EDP Sciences.
 Sodangi, M., Khamdi, M.F., Idrus, A., Hammad, D.B. and AhmedUmar, A., 2014. Best practice criteria for sustainable maintenance management of heritage buildings in Malaysia. Procedia Engineering, 77, pp.11-19.
 Somiah, M. K., Osei-Poku, G. and Aidoo, I., 2015. Relative importance analysis of factors influencing unauthorized siting of residential buildings in the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis of Ghana. Journal of building construction and planning research, 3(03), p.117.
 Huo, X., Ann, T. W. and Wu, Z., 2018. An empirical study of the variables affecting site planning and design in green buildings. Journal of Cleaner Production, 175, pp.314-323.
 Durdyev, S., Ismail, S. and Bakar, N. A., 2012. Factors causing cost overruns in construction of residential projects: case study of Turkey. International Journal of Science and Management, 1(1), pp.3-12.
 Abraham, G. L., 2003. Critical success factors for the construction industry. In Construction Research Congress: Wind of Change: Integration and Innovation (pp. 1-9).
 Akadiri, O. P., 2011. Development of a multi-criteria approach for the selection of sustainable materials for building projects.
 Shah, M. N., Dixit, S., Kumar, R., Jain, R. and Anand, K., 2021. Causes of delays in slum reconstruction projects in India. International journal of construction management, 21(5), pp.452-467.
 Tsiga, Z. D., Emes, M. and Smith, A., 2016. Critical success factors for the construction industry. PM World Journal, 5(8), pp.1-12.
 Jarkas, A. M., Al Balushi, R. A. and Raveendranath, P. K., 2015. Determinants of construction labour productivity in Oman. International Journal of Construction Management, 15(4), pp.332-344.
 Pallant, J., 2013. SPSS survival manual. McGraw-hill education (UK).
 Kazaz, A., Ulubeyli, S., Acikara, T. and Er, B., 2016. Factors affecting labor productivity: perspectives of craft workers. Procedia engineering, 164, pp.28-34.