Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32451
Research Design for Developing and Validating Ice-Hockey Team Diagnostics Scale

Authors: Gergely Géczi


In the modern world, ice-hockey (and in a broader sense, team sports) is becoming an increasingly popular field of entertainment. Although the main element is most likely perceived as the show itself, winning is an inevitable part of the successful operation of any sports team. In this paper, the author creates a research design allowing to develop and validate an ice-hockey team-focused diagnostics scale, which enables researchers and practitioners to identify the problems associated with underperforming teams. The construction of the scale starts with personal interviews with experts of the field, carefully chosen from Hungarian ice-hockey sector. Based on the interviews, the author is shown to be in the position to create the categories and the relevant items for the scale. When constructed, the next step is the validation process on a Hungarian sample. Data for validation are acquired through reaching the licensed database of the Hungarian Ice-Hockey Federation involving Hungarian ice-hockey coaches and players. The Ice-Hockey Team Diagnostics Scale is to be created to orientate practitioners in understanding both effective and underperforming team work.

Keywords: Diagnostics Scale, effective versus underperforming team work, ice-hockey, research design.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 420


[1] R. Arnold, D. Fletcher, K. Daniels, “Organisational stressors, coping and outcomes in competitive sport.” in Journal of Sport Sciences, vol. 35. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2017, pp. 694-703.
[2] T. C. Bates, S. Gupta, “Smart groups of smart people: evidence for IQ as the origin of collective intelligence in the performance of human groups.” in Intelligence, vol. 60. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2016, pp. 46-56.
[3] M. T. Bevan, “A Method of Phenomenological Interviewing.” in Qualitative Health Research, vol. 24. London: SAGE Publishing, 2014, pp. 136-144.
[4] J. Collins, N. Durand-Bush, “The roles of coaches in optimizing team functioning in curling: Perceptions of high performance coaches and athletes.” in International Journal of Coaching Science, vol. 10. London: SAGE Publishing, 2016, pp. 55-72.
[5] T. Crowley, A. Van der Merwe, D. Skinner, “Development of a cultural and contextual appropriate HIV self-management instrument using interpretive phenomenology and focus group cognitive interviews.” in International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, vol. 12. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020.
[6] D. Durovic, A. A. Veljkovic, T. Petrovic, “Psychological aspects of motivation in sport achievement.” in Facta Universitatis, Physical Education and Sport, vol. 18. Nis: University of Nis, 2020.
[7] D. L. Feltz, M. A. Chase, S. E. Moritz, P. J. Sullivan, “A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development.” in Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 91. Washington: American Psychological Association, 1999, pp. 765–776.
[8] M. Fülöp, Sz. Takács, “The cooperative competitive citizen: What does it take.” in Citizenship Teaching & Learning, vol. 8. Bristol: Intellect Books, 2013, pp. 131-156.
[9] G. Géczi, L. I. Komlósi, “Ice-Hockey as a Potential Improvement for Emotional Intelligence and Resilience: Increasing Psychological Capital.” in 58th Int Sc Conf on Economic and Social Development, conference proceedings. Varazdin: Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency, 2020, pp. 175-182.
[10] D. Glavas, “Basic Cognitive Abilities Relevant to Male Adolescent’s Soccer Performance.” in Perceptual and Motor skills, vol. 127. London: SAGE Publishing, 2020, pp. 1079-1094.
[11] M. A. Gómez, C. Lago-Penas, M. T. Gómez, S. Jimenez, A. S. Leicht, “Impact of elite soccer coaching change on team performance according to coach- and club-related variables.” in Biology of Sport, vol. 38. Poznan: Termedia, 2021, pp. 603-608.
[12] R. B. Gramacy, S. T. Jensen, M. Taddy, “Estimating player contribution in hockey with regularized logistic regression.” in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, vol. 9. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013, pp. 97-111.
[13] R. H. Hoyle, “Confirmatory Factor Analysis.” In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman & T. Lisao (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social science research methods, vol. 1. London: SAGE Publishing, 2012, pp. 169-175.
[14] L. Keatlholetswe, L. Malete, “Coaching Efficacy, Player Perceptions of Coaches’ Leadership Styles, and Team Performance in Premier League Soccer.” in Research quarterly for exercise and sport, vol. 90. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2019, pp. 71-79.
[15] A. W. Lane, R. C. Therwell, J. Lowther, T. J. Devonport, “Emotional Intelligence and Psychological Skills Use Among Athletes.” in Social Behaviour and Personality, vol. 37. Palmerston North: Scientific Journal Publishers, 2009.
[16] M. C. H. Lee, J. Y. Chow, J. Komar, C. W. K. Tan, C. Button, “Nonlinear Pedagogy: An Effective Approach to Cater for Individual Differences in Learning a Sports Skill.” in PLoS ONE, vol. 9. San Francisco: PLOS, 2014.
[17] T. Moll, G. L. Davies, “The effects of coaches’ emotional expressions on players’ performance: Experimental evidence in a football context.” in Psychology of Sport & Exercise, vol. 54. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2021.
[18] B. Nicolescu, “Transdisciplinarity: Past, present and future.” In B. Haverkort & C. Reijntjes (Eds.), Moving Worldviews – Reshaping sciences, policies and practices for endogenous sustainable development. Leusden: COMPAS Editions, 2006, pp. 142-166.
[19] D. M. Okamoto, “Stratified Odds Ratios for Evaluating NBA Players Based on their Plus/Minus Statistics.” in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, vol. 7. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011.
[20] J. D. Pitts, B. A. Evans, “Defensive Coordinator and Head Coach Effects on Team Defensive Performance in the National Football League.” in Journal of Sports Economics, vol. 21. London: SAGE Publishing, 2020, pp. 493-524.
[21] S. N. Riley, “Investigating the multivariate nature of NHL player performance with structural equation modeling.” in PLoS ONE, vol. 12, San Francisco, PLOS, 2017.
[22] K. Salman, L. Arnesson, G. Shukur, “Coach Succession and Team Performance: The Impact of Ability and Timing – Swedish Ice Hockey Data.” in Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, vol. 5. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2009.
[23] M. Sashkin, “The organizational cultural assessment questionnaire (OCAQ) user’s manual.” Washington: Ducochon Press, 2001.
[24] Á. Szemes, P. Vig, K. Nagy, G. Géczi, K. Sipos, L. Tóth, “Age-related differences in motivational climate and extrinsic-intrinsic motivational factors among member of the Hungarian national wrestling teams.” in Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An interdisciplinary journal, vol. 21. Cluj Napoca, ASCR Publishing House, 2017, pp. 293-306.
[25] L. E. Tomaszewski, J. Zarestky, E. Gonzalez, “Planning Qualitative Research: Design and Decision Making for New Researchers.” in International Journal of Qualitative Methods, vol. 19. London: SAGE Publishing, 2020.
[26] R. T. Trotter, “Qualitative research sample design and sample size: Resolving and unresolved issues and inferential imperatives.” in Preventive Medicine, vol. 55. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2012.
[27] A. H. Verhoef, “Between Faith and Belief. Towards a Contemporary Phenomenology of Religious Life.” in South African Journal of Philosophy, vol. 36. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2017, pp. 307-308.
[28] P. Wang, F. J. Infurna, S. Y. Schaefer, „Predicting Motor Skills Learning in Older Adults Using Visuospatial Performance.” in Journal of Motor Learning and Development, vol. 8. Hanover: Human Kinetics, 2020, pp. 38-51.
[29] K. W. You, “Differences in an Organization’s Cultural Functions between High and Low-Performance University Soccer Teams.” in Sport Mont, vol. 18. Podgorica: Montenegrin Sports Academy, 2020, pp. 83-88.
[30] M. Zavertiaeva, I. Naidenova, P. Parshakov, “No confidence – no glory? Coach behavioral bias and team performance.” in International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, vol. 13. London: SAGE Publishing, 2018, pp 863-873.
[31] J. Zhang, B. E. Jensen, B. L. Mann, „Modification and revision of the leadership scale for sport.” in Journal of Sport Behaviour, vol. 20. Jacksonville: University of South Alabama, 1997, pp. 105–122.