The Canaanite Trade Network between the Shores of the Mediterranean Sea
Authors: Doaa El-Shereef
The Canaanite civilization was one of the early great civilizations of the Near East, they influenced and been influenced from the civilizations of the ancient world especially the Egyptian and Mesopotamia civilizations. The development of the Canaanite trade started from the Chalcolithic Age to the Iron Age through the oldest trade route in the Middle East. This paper will focus on defining the Canaanites and from where did they come from and the meaning of the term Canaan and how the Ancient Manuscripts define the borders of the land of Canaan and this essay will describe the Canaanite trade route and their exported goods such as cedar wood, and pottery.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 496
 Moore, Megan Bishop and Brad E. Kelle. Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History. Cambridge: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2011.
 Day, John. Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan. London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.
 Coogan, Michael D. and Mark S. Smith. Stories from Ancient Canaan. 2nd. Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 2012.
 Finkelstein, Israel. "Toward a new periodization and nomenclature of the archaeology of the Southern Levant." Cooper, Jerrold S. and Glenn M. Schwartz. Study of the Ancient Near East in the Twenty-First Century: The William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference. Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 1996. pp. 103-123.
 Tubb, Jonathan N. Canaanites (Peoples of the Past). Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.
 Kramer, Samuel Noah. From the Tablets of Sumer. Colorado: The Falcon's Wing Press, 1956.
 Map from Iskandar, Michael Maxi. Jerusalem Through History. Cairo: Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate - Higher Institute for Coptic Studies - Monastery of Anba Rowais, 1972 and it is translated from Arabic by author.
 Hitti, Philip Khuri. History of Syria: Including Lebanon and Palestine. Vol. 1. New Jersey: Gorgias Press, 2002.
 Robinson, Edward and Eli Smith. Biblical Researches in Palestine and the Adjacent Regions: A Journal of Travels in the Years 1838 and 1852 (Cambridge Library Collection - Archaeology). Abridged Edition. Vol. III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
 Image Credit: Crystalinks
 Ahlström, Gösta Werner. The History of Ancient Palestine. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1993. p. 141.
 Na'aman, Nadav. Canaan in the Second Millennium B.C.E. Vol. II. Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2005.
 Peet, Thomas Eric. The Stela of Sebek-khu - The earliest record of an Egyptian campaign in Asia. Manchester: Sherratt & Hughes, Publishers to the University of Manchester, 1914.
 Steindorff, George and Keith C. Seele. When Egypt Ruled the East. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
 Parkinson, Richard Bruce. Reading Ancient Egyptian Poetry: Among Other Histories. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. p. 205.
 Image from Evans, Arthur. Pulasati (Philistines) and Tsakkaras: On Pylon of Medinet Habu. 1935. The Palace of Minos at Knossos. Volume I, Fig. 489. p. 665.
 Gardiner, Sir Alan Henderson. Egypt of the Pharaohs: An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964. p. 285.
 Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt: The Eighteenth Dynasty. Vol. II. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001. p. 163.
 Dorman, Peter F. "The destruction of Hatshepsut's memory: The proscription of Hatshepsut." Roehrig, Catharine H., Reneé Dreyfus and Cathleen A. Keller. Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. pp. 267-269.
 Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. Ramesside inscriptions. Historical and biographical. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell, 2000, p. 530.
 El-Shereef, Doaa. Smashing Biblical Myths. (Arabic Version). Cairo: El-Dar El-Thaqafia, 2015.
 El-Shereef, Doaa. The Mystery of the Temple of Solomon. Roseau: In Association with Blue Marble University, 2018.
 El-Shereef, Doaa. Torah proves that Palestine is an Arabic Land. (Arabic Version). Beirut: Dar Abaad, 2017.
 Braun, Eliot. "Early Interaction between Peoples of the Nile Valley and the Southern Levant." Teeter, Emily. Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2011. pp. 105-122.
 Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen, Cyril John Gadd and Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History: Early History of the Middle East. 3rd. Vol. 1. Part 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971. p. 494.
 Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press, 1994. p. 94.
 Image from “18th Dynasty Military post-Megiddo” Lecture at Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology & the Ancient World - Brown University.
 Cline, Eric H. and David O’Connor. Thutmose III: A New Biography First Edition. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2006.
 Shortland, Andrew J., Joanne Rowland and Sonia Zakrzewski. Science in the Study of Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge, 2015. p. 268.
 Image from Wood, Bryant G. “Conquest of Canaan under Joshua & the Inception of the Period of the Judges 1406-1371 BC.”
 Levy, Thomas Evan. "Cult, Metallurgy and Rank Societies - Chalcolithic Period (Ca. 4500 - 3500 BCE)." Levy, Thomas Evan. The Archaeology of society in the Holy Land. London: Leicester University Press, 1995. pp. 226-244.
 Image from Briangotts. “The Via Maris (purple), King's Highway (red), and other ancient Levantine trade routes, c. 1300 BCE.” Wikipedia, 24 May 2006, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Via_Maris.
 Based on a passage mentioned in the Vulgate (Latin translation of the New Testament), Matthew 4:15.
 Rainey, Anson. "Toponomic Problems (cont.)" in Tel Aviv 8 (1981), cited after Stephen Langfur, The "Via Maris" (netours.com), c.f. also Anson F. Rainey and R. Steven Notley's Carta's New Century Handbook and Atlas of the Bible (2007), p. 76: “The coastal trunk route (popularly and wrongly called Via Maris)”.
 Holst, Sanford. PhoeniciaOrg. 19 June 2004.
 Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries. London: Thames & Hudson, 2008.
 Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen. The Pyramids of Egypt. New York: Viking Press, 1972. p. 182.
 Grassi, Palazzo. The Phoenicians. Ed. Sabatino Moscati. New York: Rizzoli, 1999. p. 25.
 Willems, Harco. "The First Intermediate Period and the Middle Kingdom." Lloyd, Alan B. A Companion to Ancient Egypt. Vol. I. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010. 81-100.
 Porat, Naomi. "Local Industry of Egyptian Pottery in Southern Palestine during the Early Bronze I Period." Predynastic-ED. Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar. Vol. VIII. New York: Scholars Press, 1986. 109–129.
 Courtesy Thomas E. Levy, Levantine and Cyber-Archaeology Laboratory, UC San Diego.