Impact of Climate Change on Sea Level Rise along the Coastline of Mumbai City, India
Sea-level rise being one of the most important impacts of anthropogenic induced climate change resulting from global warming and melting of icebergs at Arctic and Antarctic, the investigations done by various researchers both on Indian Coast and elsewhere during the last decade has been reviewed in this paper. The paper aims to ascertain the propensity of consistency of different suggested methods to predict the near-accurate future sea level rise along the coast of Mumbai. Case studies at East Coast, Southern Tip and West and South West coast of India have been reviewed. Coastal Vulnerability Index of several important international places has been compared, which matched with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts. The application of Geographic Information System mapping, use of remote sensing technology, both Multi Spectral Scanner and Thematic Mapping data from Landsat classified through Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique for arriving at high, moderate and low Coastal Vulnerability Index at various important coastal cities have been observed. Instead of data driven, hindcast based forecast for Significant Wave Height, additional impact of sea level rise has been suggested. Efficacy and limitations of numerical methods vis-à-vis Artificial Neural Network has been assessed, importance of Root Mean Square error on numerical results is mentioned. Comparing between various computerized methods on forecast results obtained from MIKE 21 has been opined to be more reliable than Delft 3D model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1303
 Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate-SROCC-chapter-4; https://www.ipcc.ch/srocc
 Patankar Archana, Anand Patwardhan, Janke Andharia & Vikas Lakhani; Mumbai City Report; International Workshop on Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Urban Development Planning for Asian Coastal Cities, Bangkok, Thailand August 2010
 Kumar T. Srinivasa, R. S. Mahindra, Shailesh Nayak, K. Radhakrishnan, K. C. Sahu; Coastal Vulnerability Assessment for Orissa State, East Coast India; J. of Coastal Research, 2010 (263):523-534 (2010). https://doi.org/10.2112/09-1186.1
 S. Saravanan, N. Chandrasekar; Monthly and seasonal variation in beach profile along the coast of Tiruchendur and Kanyakumari, Tamilnadu, India; ISSN (online): 1886-7995 www.ucm.es/info/estratig/journal.htm Journal of Iberian Geology 36 (1) 2010: 39-54
 S. Saravanan and N. Chandrasekar; Potential littoral sediment transport along the coast of South Eastern Coast of India; Earth Sciences Research Journal Print version ISSN 1794-6190 Earth Sci. Res. J. vol.14 no.2 Bogotá July/Dec. 2010
 Ranger Nicola, Stéphane Hallegatte, Sumana Bhattacharya, Murthy Bachu, Satya Priya, K. Dhore, Farhat Rafique, P. Mathur, Nicolas Naville, Fanny Henriet, Celine Herweijer, Sanjib Pohit, Jan Corfee-Morlot; An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on flood risk in Mumbai; Climatic Change (2011) 104:139–167; DOI 10.1007/s10584-010-9979-2
 RoBeRT J. NichollS; Planning for the impacts of Sea level Rise; The official Journal of The Oceanography Society, USA Oceanography 24(2):144–157, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2011.34
 Cazenave Anny and Fred´erique Remy; Sea level and climate: measurements and causes of changes; wires.wiley.com/ climate change; Volume 2, September/October 2011; DOI: 10.1002/wcc.139
 S. F. Balica, N. G. Wright, F. van der Meulen; A flood vulnerability index for coastal cities and its use in assessing climate change impacts; Nat Hazards (2012) 64:73–105 DOI 10.1007/s11069-012-0234-1
 Radhika S, Deo MC, Latha G.; Evaluation of the wave height used in the design of offshore structures considering the effects of climate change; The Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment; https://doi.org/10.1177/1475090212443177
 Viviek V. Joe, Saravanan S. and Chandrasekar N.; Coastal Vulnerability and Shoreline Changes for Southern Tip of India Remote Sensing and GIS Approach; Earth Science & Climatic Change; 2013, 4:4; http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7617.1000144
 Mahapatra Manik, Ratheesh Ramakrishnan; Sea level rise and coastal vulnerability assessment: http://www.cibtech.org/jgee.htm 2013 Vol.3 (3) September-December, pp.67-80
 Arun Rana, Kean Fostera, Thomas Bosshard, Jonas Olsson, Lars Bengtssona; Impact of climate change on rainfall over Mumbai using Distribution-based Scaling of Global Climate Model projections; Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 1 (2014) 107–128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2014.06.005
 Bhaskaran Prasad K, Nitika Gupta, and Mihir K Dash; Wind-wave Climate Projections for the Indian Ocean from Satellite Observations; Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development; 2014, S11 DOI: 10.4172/2155-9910.S11-005
 S. Chenthamil Selvan, R. S. Kankara & B. Rajan; Assessment of shoreline changes along Karnataka coast, India using GIS & Remote sensing techniques; Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences, Vol. 43 (7), July 2014, pp. 1286-1291
 B. Deepika, K. Avinash, K. S. Jayappa; Shoreline change rate estimation and its forecast: remote sensing, geographical information system and statistics-based approach; Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2014) 11:395–416; DOI 10.1007/s13762-013-0196-1
 Aromar Ravi; Climate change risk: an adaptation and mitigation agenda for Indian cities; Environment & Urbanization - International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Vol 20(1): 207–229. DOI: 10.1177/0956247808089157
 Pratibha. D. Singh, A. R. Kambekar; Assessing Impact of Sea Level Rise Along The coast line of Mumbai City Using Geographical Information System; National Conference- Sustainable Environment, IIT Roorkee (2015)
 Unnikrishnan & Gangan, Nidheesh & Lengaigne, Matthieu. (2015). Sea-level-rise trends off the Indian coasts during the last two decades. Current Science, Vol. 108, No. 5, 10 March 2015 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275965622
 A. Misra & R. Balaji; Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India; Environ Monit. Assess (2015) 187:461; DOI 10.1007/s10661-015-4684-2
 Patil Kalpesh, M.C. Deo & Muthalagu Ravichandran; Prediction of sea surface temperature by combining numerical and neural techniques; Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, June 2016; DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0213.1
 Saha Dauji, M. C. Deo1, Sudheer Joseph and Kapilesh Bhargava; A combined numerical and neural technique for short term prediction of ocean currents in the Indian Ocean; Environ Syst Res (2016) 5:4 DOI 10.1186/s40068-016-0057-2
 B.R. Rajasree, M.C. Deo, & L. Sheela Nair; Effect of climate change on shoreline shifts at a straight and continuous coast; Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 183 (2016) 221e234; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.10.034, 0272-7714/© 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
 Sunder Swathy, RAAJ Ramsankaran & Balaji Ramakrishnan; Inter-comparison of remote sensing sensing-based shoreline mapping techniques at different coastal stretches of India; Environ. Monit. Assess (2017) 189: 290; DOI 10.1007/s10661-017-5996-1
 Singh P.D, Kambekar A.R. (2017); Assessing Impact of Sea Level Rise Along the Coastline of Mumbai City Using Geographic Information System; Understanding Built Environment pp 87-89. Springer Transactions in Civil and Environmental Engineering. Springer, Singapore; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-2138-1_9
 Rajasree B. R., Deo M. C.; Evaluation of estuary shoreline shift in response to climate change: A study from the central west coast of India; Land Degradation and Development, Vol 29, Issue 10, October 2018 PP 3571-3583; https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3074
 Ankita Misra, Balaji Ramakrishnan, Zoran Voinovich, Arjen Luijendijk & Roshanka Ranasinghe; Assessment of Complementary Medium-Resolution Satellite Imageries for Nearshore Bathymetry Estimation; Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing https://doi.org/10.1007/s12524-018-0920-x
 Kulkarni, Sumeet & Deo, M. & Ghosh, Subimal. (2018); Performance of the CORDEX regional climate models in simulating offshore wind and wind potential. Theoretical and Applied Climatology.; DOI:10.1007/s00704-018-2401-0.
 Bharathan Radhamma, Rajasree & Deo, M. (2018); Prediction of Shoreline Changes for Different Coastal Configurations Using Future Climate Proceedings; Coastal Engineering Proceedings.1.82. 10.9753/icce.v36.sediment.82.
 Varne, Kapil & Bharathan Radhamma, Rajasree & Behera, Manasa. (2019). Hydrodynamic and Morphodynamic Investigation along the Maharashtra Coast.,24th HYDRO 2019, International Conference, Hyderabad, 2019; https://www.researchgate.net/publication / 338503422
 Bharathan Radhamma, Rajasree & Deo, Mc. (2020). Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability Considering the Future Climate: A Case Study along the Central West Coast of India. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering. 146. 05019005 1-17. 10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000552.
 Dhiman, R., Vishnu Radhan, R., Eldho, T.I. et al. Flood risk and adaptation in Indian coastal cities: recent scenarios. Applied Water Science 9, 5 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0881-9
 Luis M. Abadie, Luke P. Jackson, Elisa Sainz de Murieta, Svetlana Jevrejeva, Ibon Galarraga; Comparing urban coastal flood risk in 136 cities under two alternative sea-level projections: RCP 8.5 and an expert opinion-based high-end scenario; Ocean and Coastal Management 193 (2020)105249; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105249.
 Ravinder Dhiman, Ranjith Vishnu Radhan, Arun Inamdar& T.I. Eldho; Web-GIS integrated open-source mashup technology as a cue for integrated management in coastal megacities; Journal of Coastal Conservation volume 24, Article number: 18 (2020); DOI:10.1007/s11852-020-00734-y
 Church, J. A., Clark, P. U., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J. M., Jevrejeva, S., Levermann, A., et al. (2013). Sea level change. In T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.K. Plattner, M. M. B. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, et al. (Eds.), Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (pp. 1137–1216). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CB09781107415315.026
 Garner Andra J., Weiss Jeremy L., Parris Adam, Kopp Robert E., Horton Radley Overpeck Jonathan T., and Horton Benjamin P; Evolution of 21st Century Sea Level Rise Projections; Earth's Future; 10.1029/2018EF00099
 Dhanya Praveen, Andimuthu Ramachandra and Kandasami Palanivelu; Constructing Local Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Assessing Possible Impacts and Adaptation Needs: Insights from Coasts of India; http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.74325
 Katy Daigle and Maanvi Singh; https://www.sciencenews.org/article; As Waters Rise, Coastal Megacities Like Mumbai Face Catastrophe; August 15,2018