Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31324
Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Particulate-Phase Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

Authors: B. Wang, W. H. Or, S.C. Lee, Y.C. Leung, B. Organ


This study presents an investigation of diesel vehicle particulate-phase emissions with neat ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blend (B5) in Hong Kong. A Euro VI light duty diesel vehicle was tested under transient (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)), steady-state and idling on a chassis dynamometer. Chemical analyses including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), as well as 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were conducted. The OC fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for B0 ranged from 2.86 ± 0.33 to 7.19 ± 1.51 mg/kg, and those for B5 ranged from 4.31 ± 0.64 to 15.36 ± 3.77 mg/kg, respectively. The EFs of EC were low for both fuel blends (0.25 mg/kg or below). With B5, the EFs of total PAHs were decreased as compared to B0. Specifically, B5 reduced total PAH emissions by 50.2%, 30.7%, and 15.2% over NEDC, steady-state and idling, respectively. It was found that when B5 was used, PAHs and oxy-PAHs with lower molecular weight (2 to 3 rings) were reduced whereas PAHs/oxy-PAHs with medium or high molecular weight (4 to 7 rings) were increased. Our study suggests the necessity of taking atmospheric and health factors into account for biodiesel application as an alternative motor fuel.

Keywords: Biodiesel, PAHs, vehicular emission, OC/EC

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 0


[1] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). “Health assessment document for diesel engine exhaust”, Prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC, for the Office of Transportation and Air Quality; EPA/600/8-90/057F. Available from: National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA; PB2002-107661, and , 2002.
[2] Panel on Environmental Affairs, Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, “Administration's paper on progress on improving roadside air quality”, Available from: , Dec. 2018.
[3] G. Knothe, and L. F. Razon, “Biodiesel fuels”, Prog. Energ. Compust. vol. 58, pp. 36-59, Jan. 2017.
[4] E. Bakeas, G. Karavalakis, G. Fontaras, and S. Stournas, “An experimental study on the impact of biodiesel origin on the regulated and PAH emissions from a Euro 4 light-duty vehicle”, Fuel, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 3200-3208, Nov. 2011.
[5] G. Karavalakis, K. C. Johnson, M. Hajbabaei, and T. D. Durbin, “Application of low-level biodiesel blends on heavy-duty (diesel) engines: Feedstock implications on NOx and particulate emissions” Fuel vol. 181, pp. 259-268, Oct. 2016.
[6] M. Lapuerta, O. Armas, and J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, “Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions”, Prog. Energ. Compust. vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 198-223., Apr. 2019
[7] K. Na, S. Biswas, W. Robertson, K. Sahay, R. Okamoto, A. Mitchell, and S. Lemieux, “Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 107, pp. 307 -314, Apr. 2015.
[8] T. Lu, Z. Huang, C. S. Cheung, & J. Ma, (2012). “Size distribution of EC, OC and particle-phase PAHs emissions from a diesel engine fueled with three fuels”, Sci, Total Environ, vol. 438, pp. 33-41, Nov. 2012.
[9] J. H. Tsai, S. J. Chen, K. L. Huang, Y. C. Lin, W. J. Lee, C. C. Lin, and W. Y. Lin, “PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fueled with soy-biodiesel blends”, J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 179, no. 1-3, pp. 237-243, July 2010.
[10] H. Zhang, K. T. Magara-Gomez, M. R. Olson, T. Okuda, K. A. Walz, J. J. Schauer, and M. J. Kleeman, “Atmospheric impacts of black carbon emission reductions through the strategic use of biodiesel in California”, Sci, Total Environ, vol. 538, pp. 412-422, Dec. 2015.
[11] J. Zhang, K. He, X. Shi, and Y. Zhao, “Effect of SME biodiesel blend on PM2.5 emission from a heavy-duty engine”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 43, no. 15, pp. 2442-2448, May 2009.
[12] IARC, “Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts and Some Nitroarenes Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans”, Lyon, France, Vol. 105, 2012.
[13] P. T. J. Scheepers, and P. P. Bos, “Combustion of diesel fuel from a toxicological perspective: II. Toxicity”, Int. Arch. Occ. Env. Hea., vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 163-177. Sept. 1992.
[14] F. Chen, W. Hu, and Q. Zhong, “Emissions of particle-phase polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Fu Gui-shan tunnel of Nanjing, China”, Atmos. Res., vol. 124, 53‒60, Apr. 2013.
[15] H. Z. Shen, S. Tao, R. Wang, B. Wang, G. F. Shen, W. Li, S. S. Su, Y. Huang, X. L. Wang, W. X. Liu, B. G. Li, and K. Sun, “Global time trends in PAH emissions from motor vehicles”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 2067‒2073, Apr. 2011.
[16] M. Maria del Rosario Sienra, “Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air particulate matter”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 2374-2384, Apr. 2006.
[17] C. Guan, C. S. Cheung, X. Li, and Z. Huang, “Effects of oxygenated fuels on the particle-phase compounds emitted from a diesel engine”. Atmos. Pollut. Res., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 209-220, Mar. 2017.
[18] I. Sadiktsis, I. (2016). “Traffic related air pollution with emphasis on particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons”, Available from: , 2016.
[19] R. Abrantes, J. V. Assuncao, C. R. Pesquero, R. E. Bruns, and R. B. Nobrega, “Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasohol and ethanol vehicles”, Atmos. Res., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 648‒654, Jan. 2009.
[20] C. He, Y. Ge, J. Tan, K. You, X. Han, and J. Wang, “Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions of diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel”, Fuel vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 2040-2046, Aug. 2010.
[21] G. Karavalakis, V. Boutsika, S. Stournas, and E. Bakeas, “Biodiesel emissions profile in modern diesel vehicles. Part 2: Effect of biodiesel origin on carbonyl, PAH, nitro-PAH and oxy-PAH emissions”, Sci, Total Environ, vol. 409, no. 4, pp. 738-747, Jan. 15.
[22] Dynamic Progress International Limited, “Material Safety Data Sheet for B100 Biodiesel”, Available from , 2012.
[23] X. J. Man, C. S. Cheung, Z. Ning, L. Wei, and Z. H. Huang, “Influence of engine load and speed on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with waste cooking oil biodiesel”, Fuel, vol. 180, pp. 41-49, Sept. 15.
[24] J. C. Chow, J. G. Watson, L. W. A. Chen, M. C. O. Chang, N. E. Robinson, D. Trimble, and S. Kohl, “The IMPROVE_A temperature protocol for thermal/optical carbon analysis: Maintaining consistency with a long-term database”, Japca. J. Air Wate MA., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1014-1023, 2007.
[25] S. S. H. Ho, J. Z. Yu, J. C. Chow, B. Zielinska,J. G. Watson, E. H. L. Sit, and J. J. Schauer, “Evaluation of an in-injection port thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for analysis of non-polar organic compounds in ambient aerosol samples”, J. Chromatog. A, vol. 1200, no. 2, pp. 217-227, July 2008.
[26] K. Shibata, K. Enya, N. Ishikawa, and K. Sakamoto, “EC/OC and PAHs Emissions from a Modern Diesel Engine with DPF Regeneration Fueled by 10% RME Biodiesel”. Aerosol Air Qual. Res, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1765-1774, July 2019.
[27] M. P. Fraser, K. Lakshmanan, S. G. Fritz, and B. Ubanwa, “Variation in composition of fine particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles”, J. Geophysic. Res., vol. 107, no. D21, pp. 8346, Nov. 2002.
[28] S. D. Shah, D. R. Cocker, J. W. Miller, and J. M. Norbeck, “Emission rates of particulate matter and elemental and organic carbon from in-use diesel engines”, Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2544-2550, May 2004.
[29] J. Zhang, K. He, X. Shi, and Y. Zhao, “Comparison of Particle Emissions from an Engine Operating on Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel”, Fuel, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 2089-2097, June. 2011.
[30] R. Ballesteros, J. J. Hernández, and L. L. Lyons, “An experimental study of the influence of biofuel origin on particle-associated PAH emissions”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 930-938, Mar. 2010.
[31] C. V. de Souza, and S. M. Corrêa, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel emission, diesel fuel and lubricant oil”, Fuel, vol. 185, pp. 925-931, Dec. 2016.
[32] K. L. Cheung, L. Ntziachristos, T. Tzamkiozis, J. J. Schauer, Z. Samaras, K. F. Moore, and C. Sioutas, “Emissions of particulate trace elements, metals, and organic species from gasoline, diesel, and biodiesel passenger vehicles and their relation to oxidative potential”, Aerosol Sci. Tech., vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 501-513, June. 2010.
[33] De Abrantes, R., De Assunção, J. V., and R. Pesquero, C., “Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from light-duty diesel vehicles exhaust”, Atmos. Environ., vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1631-238, Feb. 1640.
[34] L. Huang, S. V. Bohac, S. M. Chernyak, and S. A. Batterman, “Effects of fuels, engine load and exhaust after-treatment on diesel engine SVOC emissions and development of SVOC profiles for receptor modeling”, Atmos. Environ (1994)., vol. 102, pp. 228-238, Feb. 2015.
[35] G. Karavalakis, G. Fontaras, D. Ampatzoglou, M. Kousoulidou, S. Stournas, Z. Samaras, and E. Bakeas, “Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 3: Impact on PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH emissions”, Environ. Pollut., vol. 158, no. 5, pp. 1584-1594, May 2010.