Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31325
The Influence of Job Recognition and Job Motivation on Organizational Commitment in Public Sector: The Mediation Role of Employee Engagement
Abstract:It is an established fact that organizations across the globe consider employees as their assets and try to advance their well-being. However, the local firms of developing countries are mostly profit oriented and do not have much concern about their employees’ engagement or commitment. Like other developing countries, the local organizations of Pakistan are also less concerned about the well-being of their employees. Especially public sector organizations lack concern regarding engagement, satisfaction or commitment of the employees. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the impact of job recognition and job motivation on organizational commitment in the mediation role of employee engagement. The data were collected from land record officers of board of revenue, Punjab, Pakistan. Structured questionnaire was used to collect data through physically visiting land record officers and also through the internet. A total of 318 land record officers’ responses were finalized to perform data analysis. The data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling technique. The findings revealed that job recognition and job motivation have direct as well as indirect positive and significant impact on organizational commitment. The limitations, practical implications and future research indications are also explained. Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 0
 Abbas M. H., & Ahmed, V. (2016). Challenges to Social Accountability and Service Delivery in Pakistan. Social Change, 46(4), 560-82.
 AbuKhalifeh A. N., & Som, A. P. M. (2013). The Antecedents Affecting Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance. Asian Social Science, 9(7), 41-6.
 Aguenza B. B., & Som, A. P. M. (2018). Motivational Factors of Employee Retention and Engagement in Organizations. IJAME.
 Ahmad N., & Oranye, N. O. (2010). Empowerment, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Comparative Analysis of Nurses Working in Malaysia and England. Journal of nursing management, 18(5), 582-91.
 Ahmed U., Khalid, N., Ammar, A., & Shah, M. H. (2017). Assessing Moderation of Employee Engagement on the Relationship between Work Discretion, Job Clarity and Business Performance in the Banking Sector of Pakistan. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 7(12), 1197.
 Aktar A., & Pangil, F. (2018). Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment in the Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Engagement: Does Black Box Stage Exist? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 38(7-8), 606-36.
 AkzoNobel. (2018). Employees. Retrieved from https://report.akzonobel.com/2018/ar/sustainability/resource-productivity/note-4-employees.html
 Albdour A. A., & Altarawneh, I. I. (2014). Employee Engagement and Organizational Commitment: Evidence from Jordan. International journal of business, 19(2), 192.
 Albrech S. L. (2011). Handbook of Employee Engagement: Perspectives, Issues, Research and Practice. Human Resource Management International Digest, 19(7).
 Ali I., Rehman, K. U., Ali, S. I., Yousaf, J., & Zia, M. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility Influences, Employee Commitment and Organizational Performance. African journal of Business management, 4(13), 2796-801.
 Altindis S. (2011). Job Motivation and Organizational Commitment among the Health Professionals: A Questionnaire Survey. African Journal of Business Management, 5(21), 8601-9.
 Amin W., Akram, U., Shahzad, F., & Amir, M. (2018). Impact of Transformation Leadership on Affective Employee’s Commitment. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences: Proceedings, 7(1 (s)), pp. 48-57.
 Amoatemaa A. S., & Kyeremeh, D. D. (2016). Making Employee Recognition a Tool for Achieving Improved Performance: Implication for Ghanaian Universities. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(34), 46-52.
 Andrew O. C., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual Factors and Work Outcomes of Employee Engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 498-508.
 Anitha J. (2014). Determinants of Employee Engagement and Their Impact on Employee Performance. International journal of productivity and performance management, 63(3), 308.
 Bagozzi R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing Construct Validity in Organizational Research. Administrative science quarterly, 421-58.
 Bakari H., Hunjra, A. I., Jaros, S., & Khoso, I. (2018). Moderating Role of Cynicism about Organizational Change between Authentic Leadership and Commitment to Change in Pakistani Public Sector Hospitals. Leadership in Health Services.
 Becker M., McElvany, N., & Kortenbruck, M. (2010). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Educational psychology, 102(4), 773.
 Bentler P. M. (1990). Comparative Fit Indexes in Structural Models. Psychological bulletin, 107(2), 238.
 Bhuvanaiah T., & Raya, R. P. (2015). Mechanism of Improved Performance: Intrinsic Motivation and Employee Engagement. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 12(4), 92.
 Breaugh J., Ritz, A., & Alfes, K. (2018). Work Motivation and Public Service Motivation: Disentangling Varieties of Motivation and Job Satisfaction. Public Management Review, 20(10), 1423-43.
 Browne M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative Ways of Assessing Model Fit. Sage focus editions, 154, 136-.
 Cannon M. (2015). Employee Recognition: Understanding the Construct, Its Measurement and Its Relationship to Employee Outcomes.
 Canrinus E. T., Helms-Lorenz, M., Beijaard, D., Buitink, J., & Hofman, A. (2012). Self-Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, Motivation and Commitment: Exploring the Relationships between Indicators of Teachers’ Professional Identity. European journal of psychology of education, 27(1), 115-32.
 Cesário F., & Chambel, M. J. (2017). Linking Organizational Commitment and Work Engagement to Employee Performance. Knowledge and Process Management, 24(2), 152-8.
 Cetin-Dindar A. (2016). Student Motivation in Constructivist Learning Environment. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(2).
 Clarke N., & Mahadi, N. (2017). The Significance of Mutual Recognition Respect in Mediating the Relationships between Trait Emotional Intelligence, Affective Commitment and Job Satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 105, 129-34.
 Crowder M. J. (2017). Statistical Analysis of Reliability Data: Routledge.
 Csikszentmihalyi M., & Nakamura, J. (2014). The Dynamics of Intrinsic Motivation: A Study of Adolescents Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology (pp. 175-97): Springer.
 Cunningham W. A., Preacher, K. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit Attitude Measures: Consistency, Stability, and Convergent Validity. Psychological science, 12(2), 163-70.
 Curtis C. R., Upchurch, R. S., & Severt, D. E. (2009). Employee Motivation and Organizational Commitment: A Comparison of Tipped and Nontipped Restaurant Employees. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 10(3), 253-69.
 Danish R. Q., & Usman, A. (2010). Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan. International journal of business and management, 5(2), 159.
 Deci E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Intrinsic Motivation. The corsini encyclopedia of psychology, 1-2.
 Demirtas O., & Akdogan, A. A. (2015). The Effect of Ethical Leadership Behavior on Ethical Climate, Turnover Intention, and Affective Commitment. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1), 59-67.
 Eisenberger R., Karagonlar, G., Stinglhamber, F., Neves, P., Becker, T. E., Gonzalez-Morales, M. G., & Steiger-Mueller, M. (2010). Leader–Member Exchange and Affective Organizational Commitment: The Contribution of Supervisor's Organizational Embodiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 1085.
 Ennis M. C., Gong, T., & Okpozo, A. Z. (2018). Examining the Mediating Roles of Affective and Normative Commitment in the Relationship between Transformational Leadership Practices and Turnover Intention of Government Employees. International Journal of Public Administration, 41(3), 203-15.
 Gerhart B., & Fang, M. (2015). Pay, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, Performance, and Creativity in the Workplace: Revisiting Long-Held Beliefs. Annu Rev Organ Psychol Organ Behav, 2(1), 489-521.
 Ghosh P., Rai, A., Chauhan, R., Baranwal, G., & Srivastava, D. (2016). Rewards and Recognition to Engage Private Bank Employees: Exploring the “Obligation Dimension”. Management Research Review, 39(12), 1738-51.
 González-Fernández R. A., da Silva, A. M. L., Resende, L. C., & Schilling, M. T. (2013). Composite Systems Reliability Evaluation Based on Monte Carlo Simulation and Cross-Entropy Methods. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 28(4), 4598-606.
 Graban M. (2018). Lean Hospitals: Improving Quality, Patient Safety, and Employee Engagement: Productivity Press.
 Graham K., & Stark, R. (2019). Insect Population Sampling: General Considerations. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 51, 15-20.
 Hakimian F., Farid, H., Ismail, M. N., & Nair, P. K. (2016). Importance of Commitment in Encouraging Employees’ Innovative Behaviour. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 8(1), 70-83.
 Hanaysha J., & Tahir, P. R. (2016). Examining the Effects of Employee Empowerment, Teamwork, and Employee Training on Job Satisfaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, 272-82.
 Henryhand C. J. (2009). The Effect of Employee Recognition and Employee Engagement on Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave in the Public Sector. Capella University.
 Hussain S. D., Khaliq, A., Nisar, Q. A., Kamboh, A. Z., & Ali, S. (2019). Impact of Employees’ Recognition, Rewards and Job Stress on Job Performance: Mediating Role of Perceived Organization Support.
 Iqbal J., Shabbir, M. S., Zameer, H., Khan, I. A., & Sandhu, M. A. (2017). Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement: Evidence from Corporate Sector of Pakistan. Paradigms, 11(1), 78.
 Jöreskog K. G., Sörbom, D., & Lisrel, V. (1984). Analysis of Linear Structural Relationship by Maximum Likelihood. Chicago: Scientific Software.
 Khan T. I., Jam, F. A., Akbar, A., Khan, M. B., & Hijazi, S. T. (2011). Job Involvement as Predictor of Employee Commitment: Evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(4), 252.
 Kim K. Y., Eisenberger, R., & Baik, K. (2016). Perceived Organizational Support and Affective Organizational Commitment: Moderating Influence of Perceived Organizational Competence. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(4), 558-83.
 Lambrou P., Kontodimopoulos, N., & Niakas, D. (2010). Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Medical and Nursing Staff in a Cyprus Public General Hospital. Human resources for health, 8(1), 26.
 Lee C.-H., Wang, M.-L., & Liu, M.-S. (2017). When and How Does Psychological Voice Climate Influence Individual Change Readiness? The Mediating Role of Normative Commitment and the Moderating Role of Work Engagement. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1737.
 Liu Y., Loi, R., & Ngo, H.-y. (2018). Linking Organizational Social Exchange to Intention to Leave: Does Normative Commitment Matter? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-21.
 LRMIS. Punjab Land Records Authority Background (M). 2019.
 Lucas R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant Validity of Well-Being Measures. Journal of personality and social psychology, 71(3), 616.
 MacCallum R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power Analysis and Determination of Sample Size for Covariance Structure Modeling. Psychological methods, 1(2), 130.
 Macey W. H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K. M., & Young, S. A. (2011). Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice, and Competitive Advantage (Vol. 31): John Wiley & Sons.
 Maleka M., Mpofu, M., Hlatywayo, C. K., Meyer, I., Carr, S., & Parker, J. (2019). Employee Engagement, Organisational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction in Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 29(4), 393-400.
 Markos S., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee Engagement: The Key to Improving Performance. International journal of business and management, 5(12), 89.
 Marsh H. W., & Hocevar, D. (1985). Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis to the Study of Self-Concept: First-and Higher Order Factor Models and Their Invariance across Groups. Psychological bulletin, 97(3), 562.
 Matzler K., Renzl, B., Mooradian, T., von Krogh, G., & Mueller, J. (2011). Personality Traits, Affective Commitment, Documentation of Knowledge, and Knowledge Sharing. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(02), 296-310.
 McCormick L., & Donohue, R. (2019). Antecedents of Affective and Normative Commitment of Organisational Volunteers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(18), 2581-604.
 McCunn L. J., Kim, A., & Feracor, J. (2018). Reflections on a Retrofit: Organizational Commitment, Perceived Productivity and Controllability in a Building Lighting Project in the United States. Energy Research & Social Science, 38, 154-64.
 McDonald R. P. (1970). The Theoretical Foundations of Principal Factor Analysis, Canonical Factor Analysis, and Alpha Factor Analysis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 23(1), 1-21.
 Menges J. I., Tussing, D. V., Wihler, A., & Grant, A. M. (2017). When Job Performance Is All Relative: How Family Motivation Energizes Effort and Compensates for Intrinsic Motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 60(2), 695-719.
 Mercurio Z. A. (2015). Affective Commitment as a Core Essence of Organizational Commitment: An Integrative Literature Review. Human Resource Development Review, 14(4), 389-414.
 Meyer I., & Nujjoo, A. (2012). The Relative Importance of Different Types of Rewards for Employee Motivation and Commitment in South Africa. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 10(2), 1-10.
 Meyer J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research, and Application: Sage.
 Mohsan F., Nawaz, M. M., Khan, M. S., Shaukat, Z., & Aslam, N. (2011). Are Employee Motivation, Commitment and Job Involvement Inter-Related: Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(17).
 Mone E. M., & London, M. (2018). Employee Engagement through Effective Performance Management: A Practical Guide for Managers: Routledge.
 Naderi Anari N. (2012). Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment. Journal of workplace Learning, 24(4), 256-69.
 Nazir O., & Islam, J. U. (2017). Enhancing Organizational Commitment and Employee Performance through Employee Engagement: An Empirical Check. South Asian Journal of Business Studies, 6(1), 98-114.
 Nica E. (2016). Employee Voluntary Turnover as a Negative Indicator of Organizational Effectiveness. Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management, 4(2), 220-6.
 Nohria N., Groysberg, B., & Lee, L. (2008). Employee Motivation: A Powerful New Model. Harvard business review, 86(7/8), 78.
 Nyakaro M. R. (2016). Effect of Recognition on Work Commitment by Non-Teaching Staff in Public University in Kenya.
 Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Population Census. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/population-census
 Perera R. (2016). Study on Influence of Employee Non-Financial Incentives for Turnover Intention in Apparel Industry. Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka.
 Peterson R. A., & Kim, Y. (2013). On the Relationship between Coefficient Alpha and Composite Reliability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), 194.
 Platis C., Reklitis, P., & Zimeras, S. (2015). Relation between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance in Healthcare Services. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 175, 480-7.
 Porter L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover among Psychiatric Technicians. Journal of applied psychology, 59(5), 603.
 Radda A. A., Majidadi, M. A., & Akanno, S. N. (2015). Employee Engagement: The New Model of Leadership. Indian Journal of Management Science, 5(2), 17.
 Raykov T. (1997). Scale Reliability, Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha, and Violations of Essential Tau-Equivalence with Fixed Congeneric Components. Multivariate behavioral research, 32(4), 329-53.
 Raykov T. (1998). Coefficient Alpha and Composite Reliability with Interrelated Nonhomogeneous Items. Applied psychological measurement, 22(4), 375-85.
 Reiss S. (2012). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Teaching of Psychology, 39(2), 152-6.
 Richardsen A. M. (2019). Work Engagement: Increasing Employee Well-Being and Organizational Effectiveness Creating Psychologically Healthy Workplaces: Edward Elgar Publishing.
 Rogstadius J., Kostakos, V., Kittur, A., Smus, B., Laredo, J., & Vukovic, M. (Year). An Assessment of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Task Performance in Crowdsourcing Markets. Paper presented at the Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media.
 Rothmann S., & Welsh, C. (2013). Employee Engagement: The Role of Psychological Conditions. Management Dynamics: Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists, 22(1), 14-25.
 Saeed R., Lodhi, R. N., Iqbal, A., Nayyab, H. H., Mussawar, S., & Yaseen, S. (2013). Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction of Employees in Telecom Sector of Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 16(11), 1476-82.
 Saks A. M. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement. Journal of managerial psychology, 21(7), 600-19.
 Sansone C., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance: Elsevier.
 Saunders M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research Methods. Business Students.
 Schaufeli W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The Measurement of Work Engagement with a Short Questionnaire: A Cross-National Study. Educational and psychological measurement, 66(4), 701-16.
 Shahid A., & Azhar, S. M. (2013). Gaining Employee Commitment: Linking to Organizational Effectiveness. Journal of Management Research, 5(1), 250.
 Shore L. M., & Wayne, S. J. (1993). Commitment and Employee Behavior: Comparison of Affective Commitment and Continuance Commitment with Perceived Organizational Support. Journal of applied psychology, 78(5), 774.
 Shuck B., & Herd, A. M. (2012). Employee Engagement and Leadership: Exploring the Convergence of Two Frameworks and Implications for Leadership Development in Hrd. Human resource development review, 11(2), 156-81.
 Singh S. K., Burgess, T. F., Heap, J., & Al Mehrzi, N. (2016). Competing through Employee Engagement: A Proposed Framework. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.
 Soliman M., & Wahba, M. S. (2019). Investigating Influencers of Employee Engagement in Travel Agents in Egypt. Anatolia, 30(1), 75-89.
 Sow M., Anthony, P., & Berete, M. (2016). Normative Organizational Commitment and Its Effects on Employee Retention. Business and Economic Research, 6(1), 137-47.
 Spector B. S., Leard, C., & Stone, D. (2019). Impact of Service-Learning in a Science Methods Course: Motivation Conflicts. Advances in Global Education and Research, 60.
 Spector P. E. (1985). Measurement of Human Service Staff Satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American journal of community psychology, 13(6), 693-713.
 Sun Y., Dong, X., & McIntyre, S. (2017). Motivation of User-Generated Content: Social Connectedness Moderates the Effects of Monetary Rewards. Marketing Science, 36(3), 329-37.
 Sungu L. J., Weng, Q., & Xu, X. (2019). Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: Examining the Moderating Roles of Occupational Commitment and Transformational Leadership. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 27(3), 280-90.
 Tan T. H., & Waheed, A. (2011). Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Job Satisfaction in the Malaysian Retail Sector: The Mediating Effect of Love of Money.
 Teske J., Clausen, C. K., Gray, P., Smith, L. L., Al Subia, S., Szabo, M. R., . . . Rule, A. C. (2017). Creativity of Third Graders’ Leadership Cartoons: Comparison of Mood-Enhanced to Neutral Conditions. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 217-26.
 Tessema M. T., Ready, K. J., & Embaye, A. B. (2013). The Effects of Employee Recognition, Pay, and Benefits on Job Satisfaction: Cross Country Evidence. Journal of Business and Economics, 4(1), 1-12.
 Thomas K. W. (2009). Intrinsic Motivation at Work: What Really Drives Employee Engagement: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
 Thompson B. (2004). Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Understanding Concepts and Applications: American Psychological Association.
 Vance R. J. (2006). Employee Engagement and Commitment. SHRM foundation.
 Velten L., Haas, S. F., Raffel, S., Blaszkiewicz, S., Islam, S., Hennig, B. P., . . . Nowak, D. (2017). Human Haematopoietic Stem Cell Lineage Commitment Is a Continuous Process. Nature cell biology, 19(4), 271.
 Voorhees C. M., Brady, M. K., Calantone, R., & Ramirez, E. (2016). Discriminant Validity Testing in Marketing: An Analysis, Causes for Concern, and Proposed Remedies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 119-34.
 Waddell K. J., Tabak, R. G., Strube, M. J., Haire-Joshu, D., & Lang, C. E. (2019). Belief, Confidence, and Motivation to Use the Paretic Upper Limb in Daily Life over the First 24 Weeks after Stroke. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 43(4), 197-203.
 Walden J., Jung, E. H., & Westerman, C. Y. (2017). Employee Communication, Job Engagement, and Organizational Commitment: A Study of Members of the Millennial Generation. Journal of Public Relations Research, 29(2-3), 73-89.
 Wheaton B., & Muthen, D. (1977). Alwin, and Gf Summers (1977) “Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models,” Pp. 84-136 in Dr Heise (Ed.).
 Yaakub N. F., & Elias, H. (1999). Job Motivation and Job Performance: Case of Recipients for Excellent Service in a Higher Education Institution. Malaysian Management Review, 34(1), 62-8.
 Yamauchi F., Kim, T., Lee, K. W., & Tiongco, M. The Impacts of on the Impacts of on-the-Job Training on Job Training on Job Training on Labor Market Outcomes Labor Market Outcomes Dual Training Dual Training Dual Training System in the Philippines System in the Philippines (M). Angelo King Institute. 2017.
 Zenonos A., Khan, A., Kalogridis, G., Vatsikas, S., Lewis, T., & Sooriyabandara, M. (Year). Healthyoffice: Mood Recognition at Work Using Smartphones and Wearable Sensors. Paper presented at the 2016 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communication Workshops (PerCom Workshops).
 Zinbarg R. E., Pinsof, W., Quirk, K., Kendall, A., Goldsmith, J., Hardy, N., . . . Latta, T. (2018). Testing the Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change Initial Scales. Psychotherapy Research, 28(5), 734-49.