Understanding the Behavior of Superconductors by Analyzing Permittivity
Authors: Fred Lacy
A superconductor has the ability to conduct electricity perfectly and exclude magnetic fields from its interior. In order to understand electromagnetic characteristics of superconductors, their material properties need to be examined. To facilitate this understanding, a theoretical model based on concepts of electromagnetics is presented to explain the electrical and magnetic properties of superconductors. The permittivity response is the key aspect of the model and it describes the electrical resistance response and why it vanishes at the material’s critical temperature. The model also explains the behavior of magnetic fields and why they cannot exist inside superconducting materials. The theoretical concepts and equations associated with this model are used to demonstrate that they are sufficient in describing the behavior of both type I and type II (or high temperature) superconductors. This model is also able to explain why superconductors behave differently than perfect conductors. As a result, examining the permittivity response and understanding electromagnetic field theory provides insight into the major aspects associated with superconducting materials.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 536
 Kittel C, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Hoboken New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 2005.
 Buckel W, Kleiner R, Superconductivity (Fundamentals and Applications), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004.
 C. Buzea and K. Robbie, “Assembling the Puzzle of Superconducting Elements: A Review,” Superconducting Science and Technology, vol. 18, no.1, Nov. 2004.
 C. Probst and J. Wittig, “Chapter 10 Superconductivity: Metals, Alloys, and Compounds,” Handbook on the Physical and Chemistry of Rare Earths, vol. 1, 1978, pp. 749 – 795.
 A. Marouchkine, Room-Temperature Superconductivity, Cambridge UK, Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2004.
 Hull JR, Murakami M, Applications of Bulk High-Temperature Superconductors, Proceedings of the IEEE 92 (10), p. 1705, Oct. 2004.
 Malozemoff AP, Computer Applications of High Temperature Superconductivity, Physica C: Superconductivity 153-155 part 3, p. 1049, June 1988.
 Kasap S., Koughia C., Ruda H.E. (2017) Electrical Conduction in Metals and Semiconductors. In: Kasap S., Capper P. (eds) Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials. Springer Handbooks.
 J. File, R. G. Mills, Observation of Persistent Current in a Superconducting Solenoid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, p. 93, 1963.
 Schmalian J, Failed Theories of Superconductivity, Modern Physics Letters B 24 (27) p. 2679, 2010.
 Hirsch JE, BCS theory of superconductivity: it is time to question its validity, Physica Scripta 80(3), 2009. 035702.
 Zaanen J, Condensed-matter physics: Superconducting electrons go missing, Nature, 536(7616), p.282-3, Aug. 2016.
 Božović I, Bollinger AT, Wu J, He X, Can high-Tc superconductivity in cuprates be explained by the conventional BCS theory?, Low Temperature Physics., 44(6), p. 519-27, June 2018.
 Lacy F, Evaluating the Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for RTDs and other Conductors, IEEE Sensors Journal 11(5) p. 1208, 2011.
 Lacy F, Electrical Resistance of Superconductors, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, 2019.
 Wesche R. (2017) High-Temperature Superconductors. In: Kasap S., Capper P. (eds) Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials. Springer Handbooks. Springer.
 Balanis C, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, Hoboken New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 1989.
 London F and London H, The electromagnetic equations of the supraconductor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 149, p. 71, 1935.
 Abrikosov, AA, On the magnetic properties of second kind superconductors, Sov. Phys. JETP 5, p. 1174, 1957.
 Henyey, FS, Distinction between a Perfect Conductor and a Superconductor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 (6): p.416, 1982.
 Zhang S, Sahin H, Torun E, Peeters F, Martien D, DaPron T, Dilley N, Newman N, Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency in microwave dielectric ceramics, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 100(4), p.1508, 2017.
 Wu L, Xi X, Li B, Zhou J, Dielectric meta-atom with tunable resonant frequency temperature coefficient, Scientific Reports 7(1), May 2017.
 Geballe TH, Matthias BT, Isotope effects in low temperature superconductors. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 6(2), p. 256, 1962.
 Budnick, JI, Some studies of the superconducting transition in purified tantalum. Physical Review, 119(5), p.1578, 1960.
 Lacy F, An Examination and validation of the theoretical resistivity-temperature relationship for conductors, Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., 7(4), p. 439, 2013.
 Cha P, Patel AA, Gull E, Kim EA, Slope invariant T-linear resistivity from local self-energy, Physical Review Research, 2(3), p. 033434, 2020.
 Bernstein P, Noudem J, Superconducting magnetic levitation: principle, materials, physics and models, Superconductor Science and Technology, 33(3), p. 033001, 2020.
 Shaw G, Blanco Alvarez S, Brisbois J, Burger L, Pinheiro LB, Kramer RB, Motta M, Fleury-Frenette K, Ortiz WA, Vanderheyden B, Silhanek AV, Magnetic Recording of Superconducting States, Metals, 9(10), p. 1022, 2019.
 G. Bricefio, M.F. Crommie, A. Zettl, Out-of-plane current transport in Bi2Sr2CaCu208 in the mixed state, Physica C 204, p.389, 1993.
 F. Zuo, Mixed-state magnetoresistance in organic superconductors k–(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2, Phys. Rev. B 54 (17), p. 11973, 1996.
 Wu MK, Ashburn JR, Torng CJ, Superconductivity at 93 K in a New Mixed-Phase Y-Ba-Cu-O Compound System at Ambient Pressure, Phys. Rev. Letters 58 (9), p.908, 1987.