Research of Strong-Column-Weak-Beam Criteria of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Biaxial Seismic Excitation
In several earthquakes, numerous reinforced concrete (RC) frames subjected to seismic excitation demonstrated a collapse pattern characterized by column hinges, though designed according to the Strong-Column-Weak-Beam (S-C-W-B) criteria. The effect of biaxial seismic excitation on the disparity between design and actual performance is carefully investigated in this article. First, a modified load contour method is proposed to derive a closed-form equation of biaxial bending moment strength, which is verified by numerical and experimental tests. Afterwards, a group of time history analyses of a simple frame modeled by fiber beam-column elements subjected to biaxial seismic excitation are conducted to verify that the current S-C-W-B criteria are not adequate to prevent the occurrence of column hinges. A biaxial over-strength factor is developed based on the proposed equation, and the reinforcement of columns is appropriately amplified with this factor to prevent the occurrence of column hinges under biaxial excitation, which is proved to be effective by another group of time history analyses.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 347
 J. A. Blume, N. M. Newmark, and L. H. Corning, “Design of multistory reinforced concrete buildings for earthquake motions”, Skokie, ILL: Portland Cement Association, pp. 318, 1961.
 J. P. Hollings, “Reinforced concrete seismic design”, Bull New Zealand Soc Earthq Eng, vol.2, no. 3, pp. 217‐250, 1969.
 T. Paulay, and M. J. N. Priestley, “Seismic design of reinforced concrete and masonry buildings”, Wiley, 1992.
 N. Ning, W. J. Qu, and Z. G. J. Ma, “Design recommendations for achieving ‘‘strong-column-weak beam” in RC frames”, Engineering Structures, vol. 126, pp. 343–352, 2016.
 M. Ahmadizade, and H. Shakib, “On the December 26, 2003, southeast Iran earthquake in Bam region”, Engineering Structures, vol. 26, pp. 1055–70, 2004.
 T. Rossetto, and N. Peiris, “Observations of damage due to the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005 and study of current seismic provisions for buildings in Pakistan”, Bull Earthquake Eng, vol. 7, pp. 681–899, 2009.
 B. Zhao, F. Taucer, and T. Rossetto, “Field investigation on the performance of building structures during the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China”, Engineering Structures, vol. 31, pp. 1707–23, 2009.
 M. H. Arslan, and H. H. Korkmaz, “What is to be learned from damage and failure of reinforced concrete structures during recent earthquake in Turkey?”, Engineering Failure Analysis, vol. 14, pp. 1–22, 2007.
 Euro code 8. Design of Structures for Earthquake Resistance-Part1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. Bruxelles, 2004.
 ACI 318-14. Building code requirements for structural concrete, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hill, 2014.
 GB50011-2010. Chinese Code for seismic design of buildings, Beijing, 2010.
 S.J. Pantazopoulou, and C.W. French, “Simple analytical model for T-beams in flexure”, Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 1507-1523, 1988.
 S. J. Pantazopoulou, and C.W. French, “Slab participation in practical earthquake design of reinforced concrete frames”, ACI Structural Journal, vol. 98, no. 4, July-August 2001.
 C. W. French, and A. Boroojerdi, “Contribution of R/C floor slabs in resisting lateral loads”, Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 1-18, 1989.
 N. C. Nigam, “Inelastic interactions in the dynamic response of structures”, Doctoral dissertation presented to California Institute of Technology, 1967.
 R.Padilla-Mora, and W. C. Schnobrich, “Non-linear response of framed structures to two-dimensional earthquake motion”, Structural research series No.408, 1974, UILU-ENG-74-2015.
 M. I. H. Suharwardy, and D. A. Pecknold, “Inelastic response of reinforced concrete columns subjected to two-dimensional earthquake motions”, Structural research series No.455,1978 UILU-ENG-78-2022.
 H. Takizawat, and H. Aoyama, “Biaxial effects in modelling earthquake response of R/C structures”, Earthquake engineering and structural dynamics, vol.4, pp. 523-552, 1976.
 A. E. Aktan, and D. A. W. Pecknold, “Effects of two-dimensional earthquake motion on a reinforced concrete column”, Structural research series No.399, 1978 UILU-ENG-73-2009.
 H. Rodrigues, A. Furtado, and A. Arêde, “Behavior of rectangular reinforced-concrete columns under biaxial cyclic loading and variable axial loads”, Journal of Structural Engineering, vol. 142, no. 1, 04015085, 2016.
 Z. B. Li, C. Y. Liu, and H. Ma, “Damage Mechanism Research on Reinforced Concrete Spatial Joints Subjected to 45-degree Direction Cyclic Loading”, Journal of Beijing university of technology, vol.37 no.7, 2011 (in Chinese).
 B. Bresler, “Design criteria for reinforced columns under axial load and biaxial bending”, ACI Journal, vol.32, no.5, Nov, 1960.
 G. Monti and S. Alessandri, “Assessment of RC columns under combined biaxial bending and axial load”, Proceedings of the second fib congress at Naples, Italy, 2006.
 H. G. Kwak, and J. H. Kwak, “An improved design formula for a biaxially loaded slender RC column”, Engineering Structures, vol. 32, pp. 226–237, 2010.
 M. Fossetti, and M. Papia, “Dimensionless analysis of RC rectangular sections under axial load and biaxial bending”, Engineering Structures, vol. 44, pp. 34–45, 2012.
 M. D. Stefano, and G. Faella, “An evaluation of the inelastic response of systems under biaxial seismic excitations”, Engineering Structures, vol. l, no. 9, pp. 724-731, 1996.
 Wolfram Research, Inc., Mathematica, Version 11.3.
 H. Rüsch, “Research toward a general flexural theory for structural concrete”, ACI Structural Journal, pp. 1-28, July, 1960.
 MSC.Marc Version 2015. MSC.Software Corp., Santa Ana, CA.
 M. X. Tao, and J. G. Nie, “Element mesh, section discretization and material hysteretic laws for fiber beam–olumn elements of composite structural members”. Materials and Structures vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 2521–2544, 2015.
 A. Esmaeily, Y. Xiao, “Behavior of reinforced concrete columns under variable axial loads: analysis”, ACI Structural Journal, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 736–744, 2005.
 Z. Qu, L.P. Ye, P. Pan, “Comparative study on methods of selecting earthquake ground motions for nonlinear time history analyses of building structures”, China Civil Engineering Journal, vol.44, no.7, 2011 (in Chinese).