The Effects of Cross-Border Use of Drones in Nigerian National Security
Authors: H. P. Kerry
Drone technology has become a significant discourse in a nation’s national security, while this technology could constitute a danger to national security on the one hand, on the other hand, it is used in developed and developing countries for border security, and in some cases, for protection of security agents and migrants. In the case of Nigeria, drones are used by the military to monitor and tighten security around the borders. However, terrorist groups have devised a means to utilize the technology to their advantage. Therefore, the potential danger in the widespread proliferation of this technology has become a myriad of risks. The research on the effects of cross-border use of drones in Nigerian national security looks at the negative and positive consequences of using drone technology. The study employs the use of interviews and relevant documents to obtain data while the study applied the Just War theory to justify the reason why countries use force; it further buttresses the points with what the realist theory thinks about the use of force. In conclusion, the paper recommends that the Nigerian government through the National Assembly should pass a bill for the establishment of a law that will guide the use of armed and unarmed drones in Nigeria enforced by the Nigeria Civil Aviation Authority and the office of the National Security Adviser.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 925
 T. Ong, Criminals used a swarm of drones to surveil and disrupt an FBI hostage operation, The VERGE, 1998.
 D. Molloy & J. Copestake, Drone-to-door medicines trial takes flight in Ireland, BBC News. 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-52206660
 The Economist, Drones need to be encouraged, and people protected. https://www.economist.com/leaders/2019/01/26/drones-need-to-be encouraged-and-people-protected
 G. Topham, Drones predicted to give British economy a £42bn lift by 2030. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/may/29/drones-predicted-to-give-british-economy-a-42bn-lift-by-2030
 P. Foeka, Swarms over the Savannas: How Drones are Gaining More Traction in Africa. 2016. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/blog/swarms-over-the-savannas-how-drones-are-gaining-more-traction-in-africa.
 R. Amanda, What the world can learn from Rwanda's approach to drones 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/01/what-the-world-can-learn-from-rwandas-approach-to-drones/
 The DefencePost, Nigerian Air Force inducts Tsaigumi, first operational indigenous ISR drone. https://www.thedefensepost.com/2018/02/19/nigeria-air-force-tsaigumi-drone-operational/
 BBC, Nigeria Chibok abductions: What we know, 2017, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-32299943
 BBC, Cameroon flies freed Boko Haram hostages to capital, 2014, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-29581495
 D.D. Ayeotan, “Terrorism: the Boko Haram Phenomenon in Nigeria”, 2012. Unpublished thesis.
 Factsheet, Multi-National Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram, The African Peace Facility. https://africa-eu-partnership.org/sites/default/files/apf_factsheet_-_mnjtf.pdf
 Air Force Technology, Tsaigumi Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, https://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/tsaigumi-unmanned-aerial-vehicle/
 NCAA, Advisory Circular, NCAA-GAD-AC-002 Second Edition, Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in Nigeria’s Airspace–Guidance. https://ncaa.gov.ng/media/zm2pm2fj/ncaa-gad-ac-002-unmanned-aircraft-system-operations-in-nigeria-airspace-guidance-1.pdf
 J. Dorbolo, Just War Theory, 2001, https://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/just_war_theory/criteria_intro.html
 E. Freiberger, Just War Theory and Ethics of Drone Warfare, 2013. https://www.e-ir.info/2013/07/18/just-war-theory-and-the-ethics-of-drone-warfare/
 D.R. Brunstetter, Can We Wage a Just Drone War? The Atlantic, July 19, 2012.
 R.M. Matthew, “Creating Space: Drones, Just War, And Jus Ad Vim” 2017. Unpublished work.
 Sagan, “the seminal text of neorealism”, Waltz’s book remains, 2004 page. 91 No.4,
 J.J. Mearsheimer, “The Tragedy of Great Power Politics”, New York, NY: Norton. 2014 pp. 3. ISBN 978-0393020250.
 Defence Web. MJTF shows strengths and limits of collective security. 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.defenceweb.co.za/joint/diplomacy-a-peace/mjtf-shows-strengths-and-limits-of-collective security/#:~:text=The%20MNJTF%20was%20established%20by,and%20other%20cross%2Dborder%20crime. Accessed 28/12/2020.
 S. Antunes & I. Camisão. Introducing Realism in International Relations Theory. Retrieved from: https://www.e-ir.info/2018/02/27/introducing-realism-in-international-relations-theory/ Accessed 28/12/2020.
 D. Byman, ‘Why Drones Work: The Case for Washington’s Weapon of Choice’ Foreign Affairs, 2013. 92(6): 32-43.
 John De Bhal, Drones, Gender and Classical Realists, https://www.e-ir.info/2015/04/17/drones-gender-and-classical-realists/
 Jessica Purkiss and Jack Searle, “Obama’s covert drone war in numbers: Ten times more strikes than Bush,” The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, January 17, 2017.
 P. Bump, Why the administration claims that Soleimani killed hundreds of Americans. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/01/08/why-administration-claims-that-soleimani-killed-hundreds-americans/
 The Cable FG deploys drones to fight Boko Haram. https://www.thecable.ng/fg-deploys-drones-to-fight-boko-haram
 D. Searcey. Boko Haram Is Back. With Better Drones. New York Times 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/13/world/africa/nigeria-boko-haram.html. Accessed 14/10/2020.
 Birmingham Policy Commission, The Security Impact of Drones: Challenges and Opportunities for the UK. https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/research/policycommission/remote-warfare/final-report-october-2014.pdf
 Department of Defense, DOD Dictionary of Military Term, 2013. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/abbottabad-compound/B9/B9875E9C2553D81D1D6E0523563F8D72_DoD_Dictionary_of_Military_Terms.pdf,Accessed 4/7/ 2018.
 B.P. Tice, “Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: The Force Multiplier of the 1990s” Airpower Journal. USA 1991.
 A. Abayomi, B.O. Adam, O.O. Joseph, Review on UAVs used for Aerial Surveillance, 2016. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309585222_Review_on_UAVs_used_for_Aerial_Surveillance
 M. Clarke, The UK’s Use of Armed Drones: Working with Partners. 2018, All Party Parliamentary Group on Drones Inquiry Report.
 M. Hejduk, “The use of unmanned aerial vehicles - drones supply courier”, 2015. Thesis Inzynierska Wroclaw.
 European Union Committee, Civilian Use of Drones in the EU. 7th Report of Session 2014-15. Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201415/ldselect/ldeucom/122/122.pdf
 B. Emmerson, UN Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights Concerning the Launch of an Inquiry into the Civilian Impact, and Human Rights Implications of the Use (sic) Drones and Other Forms of Targeted Killings for the Purpose of Counter-Terrorism and Counter-Insurgency, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Terrorism/SRCTBenEmmersonQC.24January12.pdf.al
 O. Gross. The New Way of War: Is There A Duty to Use Drones. 2016. : Is There A Duty to Use Drones?, 67 Fla. L. Rev. 1 (2016). Available at: http://scholarship.law.ufl.edu/flr/vol67/iss1/1
 D. A. Baldwin, The Concept of Security, Review of International Studies, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan. 1997), pp. 5-26 (22 pages) Published By: Cambridge University Press
 K.R. Holmes, what is National Security? Heritage.org. Military Strength Topical Essays. Retrieved from: https://www.heritage.org/military-strength-topical-essays/2015-essays/what-national-security
 R.A. Riham & A.M. Youssef (2016), Security, Privacy, and Safety Aspects of Civilian Drones: A Survey. ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems 1 (2):1-25 DOI: 10.1145/3001836.
 Verge Staff, Idiots with drones, shut down the UK's second largest airport again, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com/2018/12/20/18149819/london-gatwick-airport-drone-shutdown-reports
 R. Koslowski & M. Schulzke, Drones along Borders: Border Security UAVs in the United States and the European Union. Forthcoming in International Studies Perspectives For presentation at The International Studies Association Meeting (ISA), San Francisco, CA, April 4-7, 2018.
 J. Blazakis, Border Security and Unmanned Vehicles. Connections Vol. 5, No. 2 (Fall 2006), pp. 154-159 (6 pages) Published by: Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes.
 W.J. Hennigan, Experts Say Drones Pose a National Security Threat — and We Aren’t Ready, 2018. Retrieved from https://time.com/5295586/drones-threat/.
 BBC, Venezuela President Maduro survives 'drone assassination attempt', 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-45073385
 L.E. Davis, M.J. McNerney, J. Chow, T. Hamiton, S. Harting, D. Byman Armed and Dangerous? 2015. UAVs and U.S. Security. Retrieved from: https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR449/RAND_RR449.pdf
 Paul Jemitola, Nigerian Air force, Armed Forces Headquarters, Garki, Abuja. Interview with the AVM in 2019.
 J. Lin &P.W. Singer, Did an Armed Chinese-Made Drone Just Crash in Nigeria? CH-3 UCAVs Join War Against Boko Haram 2015. https://www.popsci.com/did-armed-chinese-made-drone-just-crash-nigeria/ Accessed 28/112/2020
 R. Acheson, M. Bolton, E. Minor, A. Pytlak. The Humanitarian Impact of Drones. 2017. Retrieved from: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/humanitarian-impact-of-drones.pdf Accessed 28/12/2020
 R. Browne & B. Starr, First on CNN: US shoots down another pro-regime drone in Syria. 2017. Retrieved from: https://edition.cnn.com/2017/06/20/politics/us-syria-shoots-down-pro-regime-drone/index.html. Accessed 28/12/2020
 G. Woodhams and J. Borrie. Armed UAVs in conflict escalation and inter-State crisis. 2018 Retrieved from: https://www.unidir.org/files/publications/pdfs/armed-uav-in-conflict-escalation-and-inter-state-crisis-en-747.pdf Accessed 28/12/2020
 P. Stewart, U.S. drone destroys Russian-made tank in Syria, Reuter,2018, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-usa-syria-tank/u-s-drone-destroys-russian-made-tank-in-syria-idUSKCN1FX2SJ
 R. Koslowski & M. Schulzke, Drones along Borders: Border Security UAVs in the United States and the European Union, For presentation at The International Studies Association Meeting (ISA), San Francisco, CA, April 4-7, 2018. https://www.albany.edu/~rk289758/documents/Koslowski&Schulzke_Drones_along_Borders_ISA.pdf
 M. Abdiwahab, US launches first drone strikes on IS group in Somalia, https://www.france24.com/en/20171103-usa-conducts-first-airstrikes-against-islamic-state-somalia
 Amnesty International, Will I Be Next? “Us Drone Strikes in Pakistan, [email protected]
 R. Hussein, A. Moorehead & J. Horowitz. Niger facing Pressure to ensure US and French Drone Strikes Comply with Human Right Law. 2018. Retrieved from : https://www.justsecurity.org/60589/niger-facing-pressure-ensure-u-s-french-drone-strikes-comply-human-rights-law/ Accessed 28/12/2020.
 T. Rogoway, Look inside Putin’s Massive New Military Command and Control Center, 2015.
 M. Clarke, The UK’s Use of Armed Drones: Working with Partners, A report by the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Drones. Concluding its Inquiry into The UK’s Use of Armed Drones: Working with Partners. 2018
 A. Ross, MPs call on Theresa May to release ‘kill list’ for UK drone strikes, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/feb/23/mps-theresa-may-release-kill-list-for-uk-drone-strikes
 J. Philips, Israel Hits Back in Syria After Iranian Drone Invades Israeli Airspace. 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.heritage.org/middle-east/commentary/israel-hits-back-syria-after-iranian-drone-invades-israeli-airspace
 J. Perlez, Chinese Plan to Kill Drug Lord with Drone Highlights Military Advances, 2013, The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/21/world/asia/chinese-plan-to-use-drone-highlights-military-advances.html
 New America, Who Has What: Countries Developing Armed Drones, https://www.newamerica.org/international-security/reports/world-drones/who-has-what-countries-developing-armed-drones/
 Dassault Aviation, Introduction. 2003. https://www.dassault-aviation.com/en/defense/neuron/introduction/
 Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority, NCAA. UAS Regulation, NCAA-GAD-AC-001.
 Advisory Circular, Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in Nigeria’s Airspace—Guidance. 2019. NCAA-GAD-AC-001.
 M. Byrne Consent and the use of force: an examination of ‘intervention by invitation’ as a basis for US drone strikes in Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen Journal on the Use of Force and International Law Volume 3, 2016 - Issue 1
 M. Muller, the Fog of Drone War: Lessons from the U.S. and European Armed Drone Policy. American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, 2019.
 D. Cox & R. Kassemt, Off the Record: The National Security Council, Drone Killings, and Historical Accountability. 2014 https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1388&context=yjreg
 H.R. McMaster, Midterm Assessment, The Trump Administration’s Foreign and National Security Policies, Edited by John Hannah & David Adesnik, January 2019
 UK Joint Committee on Human Rights, The Government’s policy on the use of drones for targeted killing, Second Report of Session 2015-16, 10 May 2016, available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/jt201516/jtselect/jtrights/574/574.pdf
 The Bureau of Investigation, Afghanistan: Reported US covert actions 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/drone-war/data/get-the-data-a-list-of-us-air-and-drone-strikes-afghanistan-2017
 S. Cvijic, L. Klingenberg, D. Goxho, E. Knight, Armed Drones in Europe, © 2019 Open Society Foundations
 Patrick Obeya, Nigerian Air Force, Air Commodore, Directing Staff, National Defence College, Abuja, Nigeria, being an interview asked in 2019.
 Isah Yusuf, Former Directing Staff, Air Commodore (rtd), NDC, Abuja, Nigeria, being an interview conducted in 2019.
 Obadike, Nigerian Air Force, Former Participant, NDC, Abuja, Group Captain, being an interview conducted in 2019.
 H. Christof, D. Akande, L.H. Cawthorne, T. Chengeta, the International Law Framework Regulating the Use of Armed Drones. Copyright: © British Institute of International and Comparative Law 2016 DOI: Published online by Cambridge University Press
 P. Kpou, former Directing Staff NDC, Abuja, Commodore retired, being an interview conducted in 2019.
 France 24, Hezbollah says explosive-laden drone damaged its media centre. https://www.france24.com/en/20190825-hezbollah-says-explosive-laden-drone-damaged-its-media-centre
 T. Staff Jerusalem said to warn Hamas over drones entering Israel from Gaza. Times of Israel. https://www.timesofisrael.com/jerusalem-said-to-warn-hamas-over-drones-entering-israel-from-gaza
 Ambassador Sola Enitanolaiya, The Director in Charge National Geo-Political Studies at the NDC, Abuja, Nigeria
 Air Commodore Isah Yusuf (rtd) National Defence College Abuja Nigeria. Served as a Directing Staff.
 Group Capt Obadike, former Participant of the National Defence College Abuja Nigeria.
 P. Ratner, The U.S. military creates tech to control drones with thoughts, 2018, https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/the-u-s-military-is-developing-mind-controlled-drones
 RAND, the Future of the Russia Military, Russia’s Ground Combat Capabilities and Implications for U.S.-Russia Competition. Published by the RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. © Copyright 2019 RAND Corporation R® is a registered trademark.
 Battle Space, Radar, EO/IR, Night Vision and Surveillance Update. 2020 https://battle-updates.com/update/radar-eo-ir-night-vision-and-surveillance-update-91/
 C. N. Udeagwu, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna, Nigeria, Former Commandant, being an interview conducted in 2019.
 Emmanuel O. Ezugwu, Former Provost, AFIT, Prof (Engr), being an interview conducted in 2019.
 P. Tran, France to bolster defense spending by $2 billion. Here’s the military equipment already on order, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.defensenews.com/global/europe/2018/09/26/france-to-bolster-defense-spending-by-2-billion-heres-the-military-equipment-already-on-order/
 O. Olawoyin, Budget for presidential aircraft for Buhari, Osinbajo nearly doubles to N7.3 billion. 2020 https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/250053-budget-for-presidential-aircraft-for-buhari-osinbajo-nearly-doubles-to-n7-3-billion.html
 Military expenditure, https://africacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/YB17_Chapter-9-Military-expenditure.pdf
 J. P. Yaacoub, H. Noura, O, Salman, A, Chehab, Security analysis of drones' systems: Attacks, limitations, and recommendations