Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31097
Mechanical Properties of Enset Fibers Obtained from Different Breeds of Enset Plant

Authors: Diriba T. Balcha, Boris Kulig, Oliver Hensel, Eyassu Woldesenbet

Abstract:

Enset fiber is agricultural waste and available in a surplus amount in Ethiopia. However, the hypothesized variation in properties of this fiber due to diversity of its plant source breed, fiber position within plant stem and chemical treatment duration had not proven that its application for the development of composite products is problematic. Currently, limited data are known on the functional properties of the fiber as a potential functional fiber. Thus, an effort is made in this study to narrow the knowledge gaps by characterizing it. The experimental design was conducted using Design-Expert software and the tensile test was conducted on Enset fiber from 10 breeds: Dego, Dirbo, Gishera, Itine, Siskela, Neciho, Yesherkinke, Tuzuma, Ankogena, and Kucharkia. The effects of 5% Na-OH surface treatment duration and fiber location along and across the plant pseudostem was also investigated. The test result shows that the rupture stress variation is not significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds. However, strain variation is significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds that breed Dego fiber has the highest strain before failure. Surface treated fibers showed improved rupture strength and elastic modulus per 24 hours of treatment duration. Also, the result showed that chemical treatment can deteriorate the load-bearing capacity of the fiber. The raw fiber has the higher load-bearing capacity than the treated fiber. And, it was noted that both the rupture stress and strain increase in the top to bottom gradient, whereas there is no significant variation across the stem. Elastic modulus variation both along and across the stem was insignificant. The rupture stress, elastic modulus, and strain result of Enset fiber are 360.11 ± 181.86 MPa, 12.80 ± 6.85 GPa and 0.04 ± 0.02 mm/mm, respectively. These results show that Enset fiber is comparable to other natural fibers such as abaca, banana, and sisal fibers and can be used as alternatives natural fiber for composites application. Besides, the insignificant variation of properties among breeds and across stem is essential for all breeds and all leaf sheath of the Enset fiber plant for fiber extraction. The use of short natural fiber over the long is preferable to reduce the significant variation of properties along the stem or fiber direction. In conclusion, Enset fiber application for composite product design and development is mechanically feasible.

Keywords: Natural Fiber, Agricultural waste, Chemical Treatment, Fiber characteristics

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 82

References:


[1] A. Teklay, G. Gebeyehu, T. Getachew, T. Yaynshet and T.P. Sastry, 2017, Conversion of finished leather waste incorporated with plant fibers into value added consumer products – An effort to minimize solid waste in Ethiopia, Waste Management V68 Page 45–55.
[2] A. S. Singha and Raj K. Rana, 2012, Natural fiber reinforced polystyrene composites: Effect of fiber loading, fiber dimensions and surface modification on mechanical properties, Materials and Design Vol.41 Page 289–297.
[3] Admasu Tsegaye and P.C. Struik, 2000, Influence of repetitive transplanting and leaf pruning on dry matter and food production of Enset (EnsetWelw. (Cheesman)), Field Crops Research V68 Page 61–74.
[4] Ashenafi Chaka Tuffa, Tadesse Kenea Amentae, Tesfaye Balemi and Girma Gebresenbet, 2017, Assessment of post-harvest losses of Warqe food products along the supply chain in Central Ethiopia, African Journal of Agricultural Res, Vol. 12(9), pp. 750-763.
[5] ASTM D3379- Strength and Young’s Modulus for High Modulus Single Filament Fibers,” ASTM Standards, 1975.
[6] Athijayamani, A., 2009, Studies on the Mechanical Properties and Machinability of Roselle-polyester and Roselle/sisal-polyester Hybrid Composites. Ph.D. Thesis. Anna University, Chennai, India, http://hdl.handle.net/10603/34346.
[7] Beakou, A., Ntenga, R., Lepetit, J., Ateba, J.A., Ayina, L.O., 2008. Physico-chemical and microstructural characterization of “Rhectophyllum camerunense” plant fiber. Compos. Part A: Appl. Sci. Manuf. 39(1), 67-74.
[8] Bos HL, Van den Oever MJA, Peters O., 2002, Tensile and compressive properties of flax fibers for natural fibre reinforced composites. J Mater Sci; 37 (8):1683–92.
[9] C. Elanchezhian, B. Vijaya Ramnath, G. Ramakrishnan, M. Rajendrakumar, V. Naveenkumar and M.K. Saravanakumar, 2018, Review on mechanical properties of natural fiber composites, Volume 5, Issue 1, Part 1, Pages 1785-1790.
[10] Č. Mizera, D. Herák, P. Hrabě, M. Müller, A. Kabutey, 2016b, Effect of Length of False Banana Fibre (Ensete ventricosum) on Mechanical Behaviour unde rTensile Loading, Scientia agriculturae bohemica, 47, :90–96.
[11] Č. Mizera, M. Muller, D. Herak and P. Hrabě, 2015, Mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite with fibers of false banana (Ensete ventricosum), Agronomy Research 13(3), 680–689.
[12] C. Mizera, David Herak,PetrHrabe, Miroslav Muller, and Abraham Kabutey, 2016a, Mechanical Behavior of Enset Fiber Under Tension Loading, Journal of Natural Fibers, ISSN: 1544-0478.
[13] C. Mizera, Petr Hrabe, David Herak, and Abraham Kabutey, 2017, Effect of temperature and moisture contenton tensile behaviour of false banana fibre (Ensete ventricosum),Int.Agrophys., V31, Page 377-382.
[14] Cosgrove, D. J., 2005, Growth of the plant cell wall. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 6(11), 850–861.
[15] CSA, 2011, Report on Area and Production of Major Crops (Private Peasant Holdings, Meher Season), the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Vol. I
[16] Faruk, O., Bledzki, A.K., Fink, H.-P., Sain, M., 2012, Biocomposites reinforced with natural fibers: 2000e2010. Progr. Polymer Sci. 37, 1552e1596
[17] Govardhangoud and RN Rao, 2011, Effect of fiber content and alkali treatment on mechanical properties of Roystonearegia-reinforced epoxy partially biodegradable composites, Indian Academy of Sciences, Bull. Mater. Sci., 34, No.7
[18] H. Dahy, 2017, Biocomposite materials based on annual natural fibers and biopolymers – Design, fabrication and customized applications in architecture, Construction and Building Materials, Vol.147, Page 212–220
[19] https://www.openstreetmap.org, Retrieved by March ‎15, ‎2019)
[20] Inderdeep Singh and Pramendra Kumar Bajpai, 2012, Natural Fiber Reinforced Bio-Composites: Opportunities and Challenges, In Abstracts, Indo-Danish Workshop on Future Composites Technologies for Wind Turbine Blades, pp. 9-10.
[21] Jacob, M., Varghese, K.T. and Thomas, S. (2004a)Natural rubber composites reinforced with sisal/oil palm hybrid fibers: tensile and cure characteristics. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 93, 2305–2312.
[22] JorgMüssig, Holger Fischer, Nina Graupner and Axel Drieling, 2010, Testing Methods for Measuring Physical and Mechanical Fibre Properties (Plant and Animal Fibers), In: Müssig J. (Ed.), Industrial Applications of Natural Fibers Structure, Properties and Technical Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 269–3095
[23] K. Alagarraja, A. Dhamodharan, K. Gopinathan, R. Mathan Raj and K. Ram Kumar, 2014, Fabrication and Testing of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Material, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e- ISSN: 2278-1684, p-ISSN : 2320–334X PP 27-34.
[24] Kazmierski, C of Lucintel, 2012, Growth opportunities in global composites industry, 2012-2017, composites 2012, the composites exhibition and convection, February 21-23, 2012, Mandalay bay Convection Center, Las Vegas, NV, http://www.lucintel.com/lucintel-globalcompositemarketanalysis.
[25] L.A. Pothan, S. Thomas and N.R. Neelakantan, 1997, Short banana fiber reinforced polyester composites: mechanical, failure and aging characteristics, J. Reinf. Plast.Comp. Vol. 16, Page 744–765.
[26] M. Truong, W. Zhong, S. Boyko & M. Alcock (2009) A comparative study on natural fibre density measurement, The Journal of The Textile Institute, 100:6, 525-529, DOI: 10.1080/00405000801997595.
[27] M. Zaleha, S. Mahzan and I. Maizlinda Izwana, 2012, A Review on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Natural Fiber Composites, Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 229-231, pp 276-281.
[28] Mangesh D. Teli and Jelalu M. Terega, 2017, Chemical, Physical and Thermal Characterization of Ensete ventricosum Plant Fibre, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume: 04 (12), p-ISSN: 2395-0072.
[29] Mohammed B., Martin Gabel and Laila M. Karlsson, 2013, Nutritive values of the drought tolerant food and fodder crop Enset, African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 20(8), pp. 2326-2333.
[30] N. Olaru, Lilianaolaru, GH. Cobiliac, 2004, Plasma-Modified Wood Fibers as Fillers in Polymeric Materials, 5th International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics, Vol. 50.
[31] Nurfeta, A., L. O. Eik, A. Tolera, and F. Sundstolf, 2008, Chemical composition and in sacco dry matter degradability of different morphological fractions of 10 Enset (Ensete ventricosum) varieties, Animal Feed Science and Technology 146:55–73. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.12.003.
[32] Höfte, H., Peaucelle, A., & Braybrook, S., 2012, Cell wall mechanics and growth control in plants: The role of pectins revisited. Frontiers in Plant Science, 3(121).
[33] Pickering, K.L., Beckermann, G.W., Alam, S.N., Foreman, N.J., 2007, Optimising industrial hemp fibre for composites. Compos. A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 38, 461e468.
[34] Prasanna Kumar Ilankeeran, Preetamkumar M. Mohite and Sudhir Ka, 2012, Axial Tensile Testing of Single Fibers, Modern Mechanical Engineering, Vol.2, Page 151-156.
[35] Phyo P, Tuo Wang, Sarah N. Kiemle, Hugh O’Neill, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Mei Hong, and Daniel J. Cosgroveb, 2017, Gradients in Wall Mechanics and Polysaccharides along Growing Inflorescence Stems1 (OPEN), Plant Physiology, Vol. 175, pp. 1593–1607, www.plantphysiol.org2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
[36] Ramadevi Punyamurthy, Dhanalakshmi Sampath kumar, Raghu Patel Gowda, Ranganagowda Basavaraju Bennehalli, Pramod Vasudev Badyankal and Srinivasa Chikkol Venkateshappa, 2014, Tensile Properties of Abaca Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites, International Journal of Chemistry, ISSN:2051-2732, Vol.35, Issue.2.
[37] Rongpipi S, Ye D, Gomez ED and Gomez EW (2019) Progress and Opportunities in the Characterization of Cellulose – An Important Regulator of Cell Wall Growth and Mechanics. Front. Plant Sci. 9:1894. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01894.
[38] Rudi Dungani, Myrtha Karina, Subyakto, A. Sulaeman, DedeHermawan and A. Hadiyane, 2016, Agricultural Waste Fibers Towards Sustainability and Advanced Utilization: A Review, Asian J. Plant Sci., 15 (1-2): 42-55.
[39] S.V Joshi, L.T Drzal, A.K Mohanty, S. Arora, 2004, Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites?, Composites Part A Volume 35, Page 371–376.
[40] S.V. Prasad, C. Pavithran and P.K. Rohatgi, 1983, Alkali treatment of coir fibers for coir-polyester composites, Journal of Materials Science V18 page 1443-1454.
[41] Saira Taj, Munawar Ali Munawar and Shafiullah Khan, 2007, Review Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites, Proc. Pakistan Acad. Sci. Vol. 44 Page: 129-ASTM Standards: Designation: D 638 – 03, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
[42] Suhelmidawati, Etri, 2016, Tensile Tests of Abaca Fiber as One of Alternative Materials for Retrofitting of Unreinforced Masonry (URM) Houses, Rekayasa Sipil Volume XIII No 2, Oktober 2016 ISSN : 1858-369522.
[43] Sasa Sofyan Munawar, Kenji Umemura, Shuichi Kawai, 2007, Characterization of the morphological, physical, and mechanical properties of seven nonwood plant fiber bundles, J Wood Sci (2007) 53:108–113 © The Japan Wood Research Society 2006 DOI 10.1007/s10086-006-0836-x.
[44] Ticolau, A., Aravinthan, T, Cardona, F.: A, 2010, review of current development in natural fiber composites for structural and infrastructure applications. Toowoomba: University of Southern Queensland, 5 p. SREC2010- F1-5.
[45] Tsegaye, A., 2002. On indigenous production, genetic diversity and crop ecology of Enset (Ensete ventricosum) (Welw.) Cheesman. Ph.D. Thesis. Wageningen University.
[46] Yemataw Z, 2010, Variability study and indigenous classification method of Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) clones in southern Ethiopia. MSc., Thesis, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
[47] Yemataw Z., H. Mohamed, M. Diro, T. Addis, and G. Blomme, 2014, Enset (Ensete ventricosum) clone selection by farmers and their cultural practices in Southern Ethiopia, Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution Vol. 61 Page 1091–1104.