Prioritizing the Most Important Information from Contractors’ BIM Handover for Firefighters’ Responsibilities
Authors: Akram Mahdaviparsa, Tamera McCuen, Vahideh Karimimansoob
Fire service is responsible for protecting life, assets, and natural resources from fire and other hazardous incidents. Search and rescue in unfamiliar buildings is a vital part of firefighters’ responsibilities. Providing firefighters with precise building information in an easy-to-understand format is a potential solution for mitigating the negative consequences of fire hazards. The negative effect of insufficient knowledge about a building’s indoor environment impedes firefighters’ capabilities and leads to lost property. A data rich building information modeling (BIM) is a potentially useful source in three-dimensional (3D) visualization and data/information storage for fire emergency response. Therefore, this research’s purpose is prioritizing the required information for firefighters from the most important information to the least important. A survey was carried out with firefighters working in the Norman Fire Department to obtain the importance of each building information item. The results show that “the location of exit doors, windows, corridors, elevators, and stairs”, “material of building elements”, and “building data” are the three most important information specified by firefighters. The results also implied that the 2D model of architectural, structural and way finding is more understandable in comparison with the 3D model, while the 3D model of MEP system could convey more information than the 2D model. Furthermore, color in visualization can help firefighters to understand the building information easier and quicker. Sufficient internal consistency of all responses was proven through developing the Pearson Correlation Matrix and obtaining Cronbach’s alpha of 0.916. Therefore, the results of this study are reliable and could be applied to the population.
Keywords: BIM, building fire response, ranking, visualization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 364
 Averill, J., Holmberg, D., Vinh, A., & Davis, W. (2009). Building Information Exchange for First Responders Workshop. Proceedings NIST Technical Note.
 Boguslawski, P., Mahdjoubi, L., Zverovich, V., & Fadli, F. (2016). Automated construction of variable density navigable networks in a 3D indoor environment for emergency response. Automation in Construction, 72, 115-128.
 Brown, G., Nagel, C., Zlatanova, S., & Kolbe, T. H. (2013). Modelling 3D topographic space against indoor navigation requirements. In Progress and new trends in 3D geoinformation sciences (pp. 1-22). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
 Burton, G. (2007). How the United States is reducing its firefighter fatalities. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The, 22(2), 37.
 Chen, L.C., Wu, C.H., Shen, T.S., & Chou, C.C. (2014). The application of geometric network models and building information models in geospatial environments for fire-fighting simulations. Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 45, 1–12.
 Choi, J., Choi, J., & Kim, I. (2014). Development of BIM-based evacuation regulation checking system for high-rise and complex buildings. Automation in Construction, 46, 38-49.
 NCSS Statistical Software, Chapter 401, (1998). Retrieved from https://ncss-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/themes/ncss/pdf/Procedures/NCSS/Correlation_Matrix.pdf.
 Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Sage.
 Evarts, B. (2019). Fire Loss in the United States During 2018 (p. 11). Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association.
 Ezekwem, K. C. (2016). Environmental Information Modeling: An Integration of Building Information Modeling and Geographic Information Systems for Lean and Green Developments (Doctoral dissertation, North Dakota State University).
 Gao, X., & Chen, Y. (2016). Research on BIM Technology in Construction Safety & Emergency Management, Advances in Engineering Research. 112, proceeding in 4th International Conference on Renewable Energy and Environnemental Technology (ICREET).
 Hardin, B., & McCool, D. (2015). BIM and construction management: proven tools, methods, and workflows. John Wiley & Sons. p 354
 Headquarters, Firefighting and Rescue Procedures in Theaters of Operations. (1971). Department of the Army, TM, 5-315. Washington D.C.
 Holmberg, D.G., Raymond, M.A., & Averill, J. (2013). Delivering building intelligence to first responders. Gaithersburg. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
 Hossain, M. A., & Yeoh, J. K. W. (2018, June). BIM for Existing Buildings: Potential Opportunities and Barriers. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 371, No. 1, p. 012051). IOP Publishing.
 Isikdag, U., Underwood, J., Aouad, G., & Trodd, N. (2007). Investigating the role of building information models as a part of an integrated data layer: a fire response management case. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 3(2), 124-142.
 Isikdag, U., Underwood, J., & Aouad, G. (2008). An investigation into the applicability of building information models in a geospatial environment in support of site selection and ﬁre response management processes. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 22 (4). 504–519.
 Jones, W. W., Davis, W. D., Evans, D. D., Holmberg, D. G., Bushby, S. T., & Reed, K. A. (2005). Workshop to define information needed by emergency responders during building emergencies (No. NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR)-7193).
 Li, N., Yang, Z., Ghahramani, A., Becerik-Gerber, B., & Soibelman, L. (2014). Situational awareness for supporting building fire emergency response: Information needs, information sources, and implementation requirements. Fire safety journal, 63, 17-28.
 Li, N., Becerik-Gerber, B., Soibelman, L., & Krishnamachari, B. (2015). Comparative assessment of an indoor localization framework for building an emergency response. Automation in Construction, 57, 42-54.
 Mahdaviparsa A., McCuen T. (2019). Comparison Between Current Methods of Indoor Network Analysis for Emergency Response Through BIM/CAD-GIS Integration. In: Mutis I., Hartmann T. (eds) Advances in Informatics and Computing in Civil and Construction Engineering. Springer, Cham.
 NBIMS, (2006). National BIM Standard Purpose, US National Institute of Building Sciences Facilities Information Council BIM Committee.
 OSHA, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 2012, 1910.155(c) (28).
 Pavan, A., Bolognesi, C., Guzzetti, F., Sattanino, E., Pozzoli, E., D’Abrosio, L., Mirarchi, C., & Mancini, M (2020). BIM Digital Platform for First Aid: Firefighters, Police, Red Cross. In: Daniotti B., Gianinetto M., Della Torre S. (eds) Digital Transformation of the Design, Construction and Management Processes of the Built Environment. Research for Development. Springer, Cham.
 Raosoft, EZSurvey, (1996). Retrieved from http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html
 Rensink, R. A. (2002). Internal vs. external information in visual perception. In Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on Smart graphics (pp. 63-70). ACM.
 Ruppel, U., Abolghasemzadeh, P., & Stuebbe, K.M. (2010). BIM-based immersive indoor graph networks for emergency situations in buildings. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering and Building Engineering. 65–72.
 Shino, G. K. (2013). BIM and fire protection engineering: by including all life safety systems in the BIM rendering, engineers improve the building's model as a whole. Consulting Specifying Engineer.
 Soegaard, M., & Dam, R. F. (2013). The encyclopedia of human-computer interaction. The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction.
 Tashakkori, H., Rajabifard, A., & Kalantari, M. (2015). A new 3D indoor/outdoor spatial model for indoor emergency response facilitation. Building and Environment, 89, 170-182.
 Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. International journal of medical education, 2, 53.
 Underwood, J., Aouad, G. F., Isikdag, U., & Trodd, N. M. (2007). Investigating the applicability of IFC in a geospatial environment in order to facilitate the fire response management process.
 USFA. (2016). Fire-Related Firefighter Injuries Reported to the National Fire Incident Reporting System (2012-2014). Volume 17, Issue 6 (2016).
 Vandecasteele, F., Merci, B., & Verstockt, S. (2017). Fireground location understanding by semantic linking of visual objects and building information models. Fire Safety. 91, 1026-1034.
 Wu, B., Zhang, S. (2016). Integration of GIS and BIM for indoor geovisual analytics. In XXIII ISPRS Congress, Commission II ; Halounova, L., Li, S., Šafář, V., Tomková, M., Rapant, P., Brázdil, K., Shi, W., Anton, F., Liu, Y., Stein, A., Eds. 455-458.
 Zhang, Z., Zhou, Y., Cui, J., & Meng, F. (2011, June). Modelling the information flows during emergency response. In Geoinformatics, 2011 19th International Conference on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.