Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32583
Investigating the Potential for Introduction of Warm Mix Asphalt in Kuwait Using the Volcanic Ash

Authors: H. Al-Baghli, F. Al-Asfour


The current applied asphalt technology for Kuwait roads pavement infrastructure is the hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement, including both pen grade and polymer modified bitumen (PMBs), that is produced and compacted at high temperature levels ranging from 150 to 180 °C. There are no current specifications for warm and cold mix asphalts in Kuwait’s Ministry of Public Works (MPW) asphalt standard and specifications. The process of the conventional HMA is energy intensive and directly responsible for the emission of greenhouse gases and other environmental hazards into the atmosphere leading to significant environmental impacts and raising health risk to labors at site. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology, a sustainable alternative preferred in multiple countries, has many environmental advantages because it requires lower production temperatures than HMA by 20 to 40 °C. The reduction of temperatures achieved by WMA originates from multiple technologies including foaming and chemical or organic additives that aim to reduce bitumen and improve mix workability. This paper presents a literature review of WMA technologies and techniques followed by an experimental study aiming to compare the results of produced WMA samples, using a water containing additive (foaming process), at different compaction temperatures with the HMA control volumetric properties mix designed in accordance to the new MPW’s specifications and guidelines.

Keywords: Warm-mix asphalt, water-bearing additives, foaming-based process, chemical additives, organic additives.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 418


[1] A. Chowdhury, J.W Button, A Review of Warm Mix Asphalt. Texas Transportation Institute – Technical Report 473700-00080-1 College Station, USA (2008)
[2] J. Oliveira, H. Silva, L. Abreu, S. Fernandes, Use of Warm Mix Asphalt Additive to Reduce the Production Temperatures and to Improve the Performance of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures, Journal of Cleaner Production. 41( 2013) 15–22, (2012)
[3] L. Shiying, H. Wingtat, L. Zhen, Air Pollutants Emissions and Acoustic Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt, Construction Building Materials. 129(2016), 1–10, (2016)
[4] J.W Button, Estakhri, A. Wimsatt, A Synthesis of Warm-Mix Asphalt. Texas Transportation Institute, Technical Report FHWA/TX-07/0-5597-1, (2007)
[5] S. Zhao, B. Huang, X. Shu, J. Moore, Effects of WMA Technologies on Asphalt Binder Blending, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. Vol 28: Issue 2, (2017).
[6] J. D’Angelo, E. Harm, J. Bartozek, G. Baumgardner, M. Corrigan, J. Cowsert, T. Harman, M. Jamshidi, W. Jones, D. Newcomb, B. Prowell, R. Sines, B. Yeaton, Warm-Mix Asphalt: European Practice, Report No.FHWA-PL-08-007, (2008)
[7] J. Nicholls, D. James, 2011. Literature Review of Lower Temperature Asphalt Systems, Institution of Civil Engineers, Paper 1100051, (2011).
[8] S.D. Capitão, L.G. Picado-Santos, F. Martinho, Pavement Engineering Materials: Review on the Use of Warm-Mix Asphalt, Construction and Building Materials 36 (2012) 3499–3503, (2012)
[9] M. Al-Rashwan, Characterization of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Performance in Different Aspahtl Application, Iowa State Univeristy, 12891, (2012)
[10] F. Xiao, S. Amirkhanian, Effect of Liquid Antistrip Additives on Rheology and moisture Susceptibility of Water Bearing Warm Mixtures, Construction and Building Materials, 24 (2010) 1649–1655, (2010)
[11] M. Rubio, G. Martinez, L. Baena, F. Moreno, Warm Mix Asphalt: An Overview, Journal of Cleaner Production 24 (2012) 76–84, (2012)
[12] A. Woszuk, W. Franus, A Review of the Application of Zeolite Materials in Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies, Applied Sciences, 2017, 7, 293, (2017)
[13] B. Sengoz, A. Topal, C. Gorkem, Evaluation of Natural Zeolite as Warm Mix Additive and its Comparison with other Warm Mix Additives, Construction and Building Materials 242–252, (2013).
[14] M. Marinković, T. Milović, B. Matić, Zeolite as Additives in Warm Mix Asphalt, Contemporary achievements in Civil Engineering (pp. 483-490), (2017)
[15] A. Jamshidi, M. Hamzah, Z. You, Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt Containing Sasobit®: State-of-the-art, Construction and Building Materials 38 (2013) 530–553, (2012).
[16] L. Mo, X. Li, X. Fang, M. Huurman, S. Wu, Laboratory investigation of compaction characteristics and performance of warm mix asphalt containing chemical additives, Construction and Building Materials 37 (2012) 239–247, (2012)
[17] State of Kuwait, Ministry of Public Works (MPW) Specifications, QCS2014, Section 6- Road works, Part 5- Asphalt Works
[18] ASTM C128-15, Standard Test Method for Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Fine Aggregate. ASTM International, (2015)
[19] S. Wu, K. Zhang, H. Wen, J. DeVol, K. Kelsey, Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt Containing Recycled Asphalt Shingles in Washington State, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. Vol 28: Issue 1, (2016)
[20] A. Woszuk, W. Franus, Properties of the Warm Mix Asphalt involving clinoptilolite and Na-P1 zoelite additives, Construction and Building Materials 114 (2016) 556–563, (2016).