Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Contaminated and Uncontaminated Soils
Authors: S. A. Nta
Application of health risk assessment methods is important in order to comprehend the risk of human exposure to heavy metals and other dangerous pollutants. Four soil samples were collected at distances of 10, 20, 30 m and the control 100 m away from the dump site at depths of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m. The collected soil samples were examined for Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni using standard methods. The health risks via the main pathways of human exposure to heavy metal were detected using relevant standard equations. Hazard quotient was calculated to determine non-carcinogenic health risk for each individual heavy metal. Life time cancer risk was calculated to determine the cumulative life cancer rating for each exposure pathway. The estimated health risk values for adults and children were generally lower than the reference dose. The calculated hazard quotient for the ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact pathways were less than unity. This means that there is no detrimental concern to the health on human exposure to heavy metals in contaminated soil. The life time cancer risk 5.4 × 10-2 was higher than the acceptable threshold value of 1 × 10-4 which is reflected to have significant health effects on human exposure to heavy metals in contaminated soil. Good hygienic practices are recommended to ease the potential risk to children and adult who are exposed to contaminated soils. Also, the local authorities should be made aware of such health risks for the purpose of planning the management strategy accordingly.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 776
 E. I. Obiajunwa, D. A. Pelemo, S. A. Owalabi, M. K. Fasai, & F. O. Johnson. “Characterization of Heavy Metal Pollutants of Soils and Sediments around a Crude Oil Production Terminal using EDXRF: Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys.,” Vol. 194, (2002). pp.61–64.
 R. M. S. Sheela. “Studies on Soil and Water Quality as affected by Municipal Solid Waste Dumping and their Effect on Crop Performance” Thesis Submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Science (Agriculture), (2016).
 R. Miroslav, & N. B. Vladimir. “Practical Environmental Analysis” Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House. Science Park. Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 OWF. UK (1998).
 W. L. Lindsay, & W. A. Norvell. “Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper” Soil Science Society of America Journal. Vol. 42, (1978). pp 421-428.
 Y. H. Mohamed, & V. Y. Ilia. “Health Risk Assessment Quantification from Heavy Metals Contamination in the Urban Soil and Urban Surface Deposited Sediment” Journal of Taibah University for Science, Vol. 14(1), (2020). pp 285-293, DOI: 10.1080/16583655.2020.1735735.
 USEPA. “Supplemental Guidance for Developing Soil Screening Office of Emergency and Remedial Response” (2002).
 USEPA. “Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I Human Health Evaluation Manual” (part A). I. (1989).
 USEPA. “Integrated risk information system of the US environmental protection agency” (2012).
 Z. Li, Z. Ma, & T. Jan. “A Review of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution from Mines in China” Pollution and Health Risk Assessment. Sci Total Environ. (2014); 468-469:843–853. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.