Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32601
Assessment of Psychomotor Development of Preschool Children: A Review of Eight Psychomotor Developmental Tools

Authors: Viola Hubačová Pirová


The assessment of psychomotor development allows us to identify children with motor delays, helps us to monitor progress in time and prepare suitable intervention programs. The foundation of psychomotor development lies in pre-school age and is crucial for child´s further cognitive and social development. Many assessment tools of psychomotor development have been developed over the years. Some of them are easy screening tools; others are more complex and sophisticated. The purpose of this review is to describe the history of psychomotor assessment, specify preschool children´s psychomotor evaluation and review eight psychomotor development assessment tools for preschool children (Denver II., DEMOST-PRE, TGMD -2/3, BOT-2, MABC-2, PDMS-2, KTK, MOT 4-6). The selection of test depends on purpose and context in which is the assessment planned.

Keywords: Assessment of psychomotor development, preschool children, psychomotor development, review of assessment tools.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1246


[1] L. L. Hardy, L. King, B. Kelly, L. Farrell and S. Howlett, "Munch and Move: Evaluation of a preschool healthy eating and movement skill program," International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), p. 80, 2010.
[2] V. G. Payne and L. D. Isaacs, Human Motor Development: A LifeSpan Approach. In Human Motor Development, Boston, MA: McGraw Hill; 2002, 2011.
[3] H. G. Williams and E. V. Monsma, "Assessment of gross motor development in preschool children," in the psychoeducational assessment of preschool age children, (3rd ed.), New York, Allyn and Bacon, 2007, pp. 397 - 434.
[4] G. Cioni and G. Sgandurra, "Normal psychomotor development," Handbook of Clinical Neurology, (111), p. 3–15, 2013.
[5] T. H. J. Costa, R. Barcala-Furelos, C. Abelairas-Gomez and V. Arufe-Giraldez, "The influence of a structured physical education plan on preschool children’s psychomotor development profiles," Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 40(2), p. 68–77, 2015.
[6] M. Blahutková, Psychomotorika, Brno: CDVU MU, 2007.
[7] R. Thompson, "Youth Sport Involvement in New Zealand: Issues, Images and Initiatives," FIEP Bulletin, l. 66(1), pp. 22-34, 1996.
[8] J. E. Clark and J. Whitall, "What is motor development? The lessons of history," Quest, pp. 183-202, 1989.
[9] R. M. Malina, "Motor development during infancy and early childhood: Overview and suggested directions for research," International journal of sport and health science, 2, pp. 50-66, 2004.
[10] D. P. Swain, D. L. Gallahue and F. C. Donnelly, "Developmental Physical Education for Today's Children," Human Kinetics, p. 571–573, 2003.
[11] D. L. Gallahue, "Assessing motor development in young children," Studies in Educational Evaluation, 8(3), p. 247–252, 1982.
[12] A. Gesell, The ontogenesis of infant behavior. In. L. Carmichael (Ed.), 2nd ed., New York: Wiley, 1954, pp. 335-373.
[13] W. S. Grolnick, J. M. McMenamy and C. O. Kurowski, "Emotional self-regulation in infancy and toddlerhood," in In L. Balter & C. S. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues, Philadelphia, Psychology Press, 2006, p. 3– 26.
[14] W. Schneider, "Performance prediction in young children: effects of skill, metacognition and wishfull thinking," Developmental Science, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 291–297, 1998.
[15] A. Kambas and F. Venetsanou, "Construct and Concurrent Validity of the Democritos Movement Screening Tool for Preschoolers," Pediatric Physical Therapy, 28(1), p. 94–99, 2016.
[16] J. F. Keogh, "The study of movement skill development," Quest, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 76-88, 1977.
[17] A. Gesell and C. S. Ámatruda, Developmental diagnosis: Normal and abnormal child development (2nd ed), New York: Harper & Raw, 1947.
[18] M. A. Roberton, "Motor development: Recognizing our roots, charting our future," Quest, 41(3), p. 213–223, 1989.
[19] W. Preyer, The mind of the child. Part I.: The senses and the will, New York: Appleton, 1909a.
[20] W. Preyer, Mind of the child. Part II. The development of the intellect, New York: Appleton., 1909b.
[21] M. W. Shinn, The biography of a baby, New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1900.
[22] F. Galton, The history of twins, as a criterion of the relative powers of nature and nurture, 5 ed., 1875, pp. 391-406.
[23] M. B. McGraw, Growth: A study of Johnny and Jimmy., New York: Appleton Century, 1935.
[24] N. Bayley, The California Infant Scale of Motor Development: Birth to three years, Berkley: University of California Press, 1936.
[25] P. N. Kugler, S. J. A. Kelso and M. T. Turvey, "On the control and coordination of naturally developing systems," The Development of Movement Control and Coordination, 5(1), p. 1–78, 1982.
[26] C. Gabbard, Lifelong motor development (5th ed.), San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
[27] S. W. Logan, L. E. Robinson, A. E. Wilson and W. A. Lucas, "Getting the fundamentals of movement: a meta‐analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children," Child: care, health and development, , vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 305-315., 2012.
[28] Burton A.W. and M. D.E., Movement skill assessment, Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1998.
[29] B. Holfelder and N. Schott, "Relationship of fundamental movement skills and physical activity in children and adolescents: A systematic review," Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 382-391, 2014.
[30] D. Ulrich, Test of gross motor development, Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 2002.
[31] W. Frankenburg, J. Dodds, P. Archer, H. Shapiro and B. Bresnick, Denver—II: Screening manual, Denver, CO: Denver Developmental Materials, 1990.
[32] A. Kambas and F. Venetsanou, "The Democritos Movement Screening Tool for preschool children (DEMOST-PRE©): Development and factorial validity," Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(7), p. 1528–1533, 2014.
[33] S. E. Henderson, D. A. Sugden and A. L. Barnett, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: Checklist instructions, London: UK: Harcourt Assessment, 2007.
[34] R. H. Bruininks and B. D. Bruininks, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency –2nd edition. Bot-2, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Pearson Assessments, 2010.
[35] W. K. Frankenburg and J. B. Dodds, "The Denver Developmental Screening Test.," The Journal of Pediatrics, 71(2), p. 181–191, 1967.
[36] W. K. Frankenburg, J. Dodds, P. Archer, H. Shapiro and B. Bresnick, "The Denver II: A Major Revision and Restandardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.," Pediatrics, 89(1), p. 91–97, 1992.
[37] R. Bruninks, Bruninks Oseretsky test of motor proficiency: Examiners manual, Minnesota: American Guidance Service., 1978.
[38] S. Henderson and D. Sugden, Movement assessment battery for children, London: Psychological Corporation, 1992.
[39] R. Zimmer and M. Volkamer, MOT 4-6: Motoriktest für vier-bis sechsjährige Kinder, Weinham: Beltz-Test, 1987.
[40] S. E. Henderson, D. A. Sugden and A. L. Barnett, Movement assessment battery for children-2 Examiner´s Manual, London: Harcourt Assessment, 2007.
[41] M. M. Schoemaker, B. C. M. M. Smits-Engelsman and M. J. Jongmans, "Psychometric properties of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Checklist as a screening instrument for children with a developmental co-ordination disorder," British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(3), p. 425–441, 2003.
[42] A. Barnett, S. Henderson and D. Sugden, Movement Assessment Battery for Children. 2nd ed., San Antonio, TX: Pearson Education Limited, 2007.
[43] M. M. Schoemaker, A. S. Niemeijer, B. C. T. Flapper and B. C. M. Smits-Engelsman, "Validity and reliability of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Checklist for children with and without motor impairments," Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 54(4), p. 368–375, 2012.
[44] B. N. Wilson, S. G. Crawford, D. Green, G. Roberts, A. Aylott and B. J. Kaplan, "Psychometric properties of the revised developmental coordination disorder questionnaire," Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 29(2), p. 182–202, 2009.
[45] D. Ulrich, “The test of gross motor development (3rd ed.),” 2019. (Online). Available:
[46] R. Bruininks and B. Bruininks, Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (2nd ed.), Minneapolis: NCS Pearson, 2005.
[47] M. R. Folio and R. R. Fewell, Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Examiner’s Manual, 2nd ed., Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 2000.
[48] E. J. Kiphard and F. Schilling, Körperkoordinationstest für kinder: KTK, Weinham: Beltz, 2007.
[49] D. Ulrich, Test of gross motor development, Austin, TX: Pro-Ed, 1985.
[50] K. A. Allen, B. Bredero, T. Van Damme, D. A. Ulrich and J. Simons, "Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3) with the Use of Visual Supports for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Validity and Reliability," Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(3), p. 813–833, 2017.
[51] E. Webster and D. Ulrich, "Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development—third edition," Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 5(1), pp. 45 - 58, 2017.
[52] V. Temple and J. Foley, "A peek at the developmental validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development–3," Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 5(1), pp. 5-14, 2017.
[53] M. Wagner, E. Webster and D. Ulrich, "Psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development, (German translation): Results of a pilot study," Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 5(1), pp. 29-44, 2017.
[54] I. Estevan, J. Molina-García, A. Queralt, O. Álvarez, I. Castillo and L. Barnett, “Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development–3,” Journal of Motor Learning and Development, pp. 5(1), 69-81, 2017.
[55] N. Valentini, L. Zanella and E. Webster, "Test of Gross Motor Development—Third edition: Establishing content and construct validity for Brazilian children," Journal of Motor Learning and Development, pp. 5(1), 15-28., 2017.
[56] P. Rintala, A. Sääkslahti and S. Iivonen, "Reliability assessment of scores from video-recorded TGMD-3 performances," Journal of Motor Learning and Development, pp. 5(1), 59-68, 2017.
[57] S. Kim, M. J. Kim, N. C. Valentini and J. E. Clark, "Validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 for South Korean children.," Journal of Motor Behavior, 46(5), p. 351–356, 2014.
[58] J. C. Deitz, D. Kartin and K. Kopp, "Review of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, (BOT-2)," Physical & occupational therapy in pediatrics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 87-102, 2007.
[59] D. H. Stott, F. Moyes and S. E. Henderson, Test of motor impairment: Manual. Brook Educational Pub., Ontario, Canada: Brook Educational, 1972.
[60] J. Visser and M. Jongmans, Extending the movement assessment battery for children to be suitable for 3-year-olds in the Netherlands, Unpublished manuscript, 2004.
[61] M. R. Folio and R. R. Fewell, Peabody developmental motor scales, Chicago, IL.: Riverside Publisher, 1983.
[62] E. J. Kiphard and F. Schilling, Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder: KTK, Weinham: Beltz, 1974.
[63] B. C. Smits-Engelsman, S. E. Henderson and C. G. Michels, "The assessment of children with Developmental Coordination Disorders in the Netherlands: The relationship between the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder," Human Movement Science, 17(4-5), pp. 699-709, 1998.
[64] J. Fransen, E. D’Hondt, J. Bourgois, R. Vaeyens, R. M. Philippaerts and M. Lenoir, “Motor competence assessment in children: Convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries,” Research in developmental disabilities, 35(6), pp. 1375-1383, 2014.
[65] W. Cools, K. de Martelaer, B. Vandaele, C. Samaey and C. Andries, "Assessment of movement skill performance in preschool children: Convergent validity between MOT 4-6 and M-ABC," Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9(4), p. 597, 2010.
[66] D. Wijedasa, "Developmental screening in context: Adaptation and standardization of the Denver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-II) for Sri Lankan children," Child: Care, Health and Development, 38(6), p. 889–899, 2012.
[67] T. Düger, G. Bumin, M. Uyanik, E. Aki and H. Kayihan, "The assessment of Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency in children," Pediatric Rehabilitation, 3(3), p. 125–131, 1999.
[68] R. H. Geuze, "Static balance and developmental coordination disorder," Human Movement Science, 22(4–5), p. 527–548, 2003.
[69] L. Wiart and J. Darrah, "Review of four tests of gross motor development," Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 43(4), p. 279–285, 2007.
[70] S. G. Crawford, B. N. Wilson and D. Dewey, "Identifying developmental coordination disorder: Consistency between tests," Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 20(2–3), p. 29–50, 2001.
[71] D. Y. Yoon, K. H. Scott, L. M. N., N. S. and E. V. Lambert, "Review of Three Tests of Motor Proficiency in Children," Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(2), p. 543–551, 2006.
[72] B. N. Wilson, B. J. Kaplan, S. G. Crawford and D. Dewey, "Interrater reliability of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency-long form," Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17(1), p. 95–110, 2000.
[73] J. Netelenbos, Motorische ontwikkeling van kinderen. Handboek 2: theorie, Amsterdam: Boom, 2001.