Integrated Modeling of Transformation of Electricity and Transportation Sectors: A Case Study of Australia
The proposed stringent mitigation targets require an immediate start for a drastic transformation of the whole energy system. The current Australian energy system is mainly centralized and fossil fuel-based in most states with coal and gas-fired plants dominating the total produced electricity over the recent past. On the other hand, the country is characterized by a huge, untapped renewable potential, where wind and solar energy could play a key role in the decarbonization of the Australia’s future energy system. However, integrating high shares of such variable renewable energy sources (VRES) challenges the power system considerably due to their temporal fluctuations and geographical dispersion. This raises the concerns about flexibility gap in the system to ensure the security of supply with increasing shares of such intermittent sources. One main flexibility dimension to facilitate system integration of high shares of VRES is to increase the cross-sectoral integration through coupling of electricity to other energy sectors alongside the decarbonization of the power sector and reinforcement of the transmission grid. This paper applies a multi-sectoral energy system optimization model for Australia. We investigate the cost-optimal configuration of a renewable-based Australian energy system and its transformation pathway in line with the ambitious range of proposed climate change mitigation targets. We particularly analyse the implications of linking the electricity and transport sectors in a prospective, highly renewable Australian energy system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 460
 Department of the Environment and Energy (DEE), “Australian Energy Statistics, Table O Australian electricity generation by fuel type, physical units.”
 S. Teske et al., Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals. Springer, 2019.
 S. Teske, E. Dominish, N. Ison, and K. Maras, “100% Renewable Energy for Australia – Decarbonising Australia’s Energy Sector within one Generation,” 2016.
 M. Howells et al., “OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System. An introduction to its ethos, structure and development,” Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 5850–5870, 2011.
 K. Löffler, K. Hainsch, T. Burandt, P.-Y. Oei, C. Kemfert, and C. von Hirschhausen, “Designing a Model for the Global Energy System—GENeSYS-MOD: An Application of the Open-Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS),” Energies, vol. 10, no. 10, p. 1468, 2017.
 H. K. Burandt T, Löffler K, “GENeSYS-MOD v2.0 - Enhancing the Global Energy System Model: Model Improvements, Framework Changes, and European Data Set, DIW Data Documentation 94,” DIW, Berlin, 2018.
 T. Burandt, B. Xiong, K. Löffler, and P.-Y. Oei, “Decarbonizing China’s energy system – Modeling the transformation of the electricity, transportation, heat, and industrial sectors,” Appl. Energy, vol. 255, no. August, p. 113820, 2019.
 T. Aboumahboub, R. Brecha, M. Gidden, A. Geiges, H. B. Shrestha, and B. Hare, “Decarbonization of Australia’s energy system – Integrated modeling the transformation of electricity, transportation and industrial sectors,” Submitt. Publ.
 T. Aboumahboub, R. Brecha, M. Gidden, A. Geiges, and H. B. Shrestha, “Integrating energy sectors in a state-resolved energy system model for Australia,” in Spatial and temporal modelling of renewable energy systems, EGU 2020 General Assembly., 2020.
 Australian Energy Market Opreator (AEMO), “Draft 2020 Integrated System Plan For the National Electricity Market,” 2019.
 S. Pfenninger and I. Staffell, “Long-term patterns of European PV output using 30 years of validated hourly reanalysis and satellite data,” Energy, vol. 114, pp. 1251–1265, 2016.
 I. Staffell and S. Pfenninger, “Using bias-corrected reanalysis to simulate current and future wind power output,” Energy, vol. 114, pp. 1224–1239, 2016.
 S. Teske, E. Dominish, N. Ison, and K. Maras, “100% Renewable Energy for Australia: Decarbonising Australia’s Energy Sector within One Generation,” Sydney, 2016.
 K. Eurek, P. Sullivan, M. Gleason, D. Hettinger, D. Heimiller, and A. Lopez, “An improved global wind resource estimate for integrated assessment models,” Energy Econ., vol. 64, no. February, pp. 552–567, 2017.
 D. K. Clarke, “Wind power potential and consumption by state,” 2020. (Online). Available: https://ramblingsdc.net/Australia/WindPPotential.html#Potential_wind_power_in_Australia_by_state_graph. (Accessed: 06-Apr-2020).
 Geoscience Australia and BREE, “Chapter 10 Solar Energy,” in Australian Energy Resource Assessment, 2nd ed., Canberra: Geoscience Australia, 2014, pp. 261–285.
 M. Roberts, K. Nagrath, C. Briggs, J. Copper, A. Bruce, and J. McKibben, “How much rooftop solar can be installed in Australia? Prepared for: Clean Energy Finance Corporation and Property Council of Australia,” 2019.
 Platts UDI Products Group, “Data Base Description and Research Methodology: UDI World Electric Power Plant Data Base (WEPP),” Platts, a Division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Washington DC, 2019.
 Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO), “Interconnector capabilities for the National Electricity Market,” 2017.
 A. Blakers, B. Lu, and M. Stocks, “100% renewable electricity in Australia,” Energy, vol. 133, pp. 471–482, 2017.
 K. Schaber, “Integration of Variable Renewable Energies in the European power system: a model-based analysis of transmission grid extensions and energy sector coupling, PhD Thesis.,” Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 2013.
 M. Jeppesen, M. J. Brear, D. Chattopadhyay, C. Manzie, R. Dargaville, and T. Alpcan, “Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia’s NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 1: Problem formulation and modelling,” Energy, vol. 101, pp. 606–620, 2016.
 International Energy Agency Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (IEA ETSAP), Electricity transmission and distribution - Technology Brief E12. 2014.
 M. E. Reuß, “Techno-Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Infrastructure Alternatives, PhD Thesis,” Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen, 2019.
 L. Welder, “Optimizing Cross-linked Infrastructure for Future Energy Systems, PhD Thesis,” Rheinisch-Westfälischen Technischen Hochschule Aachen, 2020.
 International Energy Agency (IEA), “The future of hydrogen: Seizing Today’s Opportunities.” 2019.
 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), “Hydrogen from renewable power: Technology outlook for the energy transition,” 2018.
 IRENA, “Hydrogen: a renewable energy perspective,” 2019.
 S. Bruce et al., “National Hydrogen Roadmap,” 2018.
 Klaus Stolzenburg, “Integration von Wind-Wasserstoff-Systemen in das Energiesystem Abschlussbericht,” 2014.
 P. Graham, L. Havas, T. Brinsmead, and L. Reedman, “Projections for small scale embedded energy technologies - a report to AEMO,” CSIRO, Australia, 2019.
 P. Graham, J. Hayward, J. Foster, and L. Havas, “GenCost 2019-20 : preliminary results for stakeholder review,” 2019.
 P. W. Graham, J. Hayward, J. Foster, O. Story, and L. Havas, “GenCost 2018 Updated projections of electricity generation technology costs,” 2018.
 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), “Annual Technology Baseline,” 2019.
 F. Ram M., Bogdanov D., Aghahosseini A., Gulagi A., Oyewo A.S., Child M., Caldera U., Sadovskaia K., B. J., Barbosa LSNS., Fasihi M., Khalili S., Dahlheimer B., Gruber G., Traber T., De Caluwe F., Fell H.-J., and C., “Global Energy System based on 100% Renewable Energy – Power, Heat, Transport and Desalination Sectors,” 2019.
 O. Schmidt, S. Melchior, A. Hawkes, and I. Staffell, “Projecting the Future Levelized Cost of Electricity Storage Technologies,” Joule, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 81–100, 2019.
 Acil Allen Consulting., “Electricity Sector Emissions: Modeling of the Australian Generation Sector - A Report to the Department of the Environment,” 2015.
 T. Campey et al., “Low Emissions Technology Roadmap. CSIRO, Australia. Report No. EP167885,” 2017.
 Australian Bureau of Statistics, “Survey of Motor Vehicle Use,” 2019. (Online). Available: https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/9208.012 months ended 30 June 2018?OpenDocument. (Accessed: 08-Apr-2020).
 BITRE and CSIRO, “Modelling the Road Transport Sector - Appendix to Australia’s Low Pollution Future The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation,” 2008.
 D. S. Cardoso, P. O. Fael, and A. Espírito-Santo, “A review of micro and mild hybrid systems,” Energy Reports, no. xxxx, pp. 22–25, 2019.
 International Energy Agency (IEA), “Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP),” Paris, France, 2017.
 A. Almeida, N. Sousa, and J. Coutinho-Rodrigues, “Quest for sustainability: Life-cycle emissions assessment of electric vehicles considering newer Li-ion batteries,” Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1–19, 2019.
 Beyond Zero Emissions (BZE), “Zero Carbon Austrlia - Electric vehicles,” 2018.
 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), “Average on-road vehicle fuel economy,” 2018. (Online). Available: https://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/assets/images/cdp_fcev_114.jpg. (Accessed: 11-Apr-2020).
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Compare Fuel Cell Vehicles,” 2020. (Online). Available: https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fcv_sbs.shtml. (Accessed: 11-Apr-2020).
 A. Creti, A. Kotelnikova, G. Meunier, and J.-P. Ponssard, “A cost benefit analysis of fuel cell electric vehicles,” 2015.
 T. and R. E. (BITRE). Bureau of Infrastructure, “Electric Vehicle Uptake: Modelling a Global Phenomenon.” Canberra, Australia, 2019.
 S. Connell, D., Court, S. H. à., & Tan, “An Open Platform for National Electricity Market Data.,” 2020. (Online). Available: https://opennem.org.au/energy/nem.
 Department of the Environment and Energy (DEE), “Australian Energy Statistics, Table O Australian electricity generation by fuel type, physical units,” 2019.
 E. and R. (DISER). Australian Department of Industry, Science, “Australian Greenhouse Emissions Information System,” 2020. (Online). Available: https://ageis.climatechange.gov.au/QueryAppendixTable.aspx. (Accessed: 11-Apr-2020).
 Australian Department of the Environment and Energy (DEE), “Australia’s emissions projections,” 2019.