Gaze Patterns of Skilled and Unskilled Sight Readers Focusing on the Cognitive Processes Involved in Reading Key and Time Signatures
Expert sight readers rely on their ability to recognize patterns in scores, their inner hearing and prediction skills in order to perform complex sight reading exercises. They also have the ability to observe deviations from expected patterns in musical scores. This increases the “Eye-hand span” (reading ahead of the point of playing) in order to process the elements in the score. The study aims to investigate the gaze patterns of expert and non-expert sight readers focusing on key and time signatures. 20 musicians were tasked with playing 12 sight reading examples composed for one hand and five examples composed for two hands to be performed on a piano keyboard. These examples were composed in different keys and time signatures and included accidentals and changes of time signature to test this theory. Results showed that the experts fixate more and for longer on key and time signatures as well as deviations in examples for two hands than the non-expert group. The inverse was true for the examples for one hand, where expert sight readers showed fewer and shorter fixations on key and time signatures as well as deviations. This seems to suggest that experts focus more on the key and time signatures as well as deviations in complex scores to facilitate sight reading. The examples written for one appeared to be too easy for the expert sight readers, compromising gaze patterns.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 42
 Arthur, P., Khuu, S. & Blom, D., 2016. Music sight-reading expertise, visually disrupted score and eye movements. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 9(7), pp. 1-12.
 Cara, M. A. & Vera, G. g., 2016. Silent reading of music and texts; Eye movements and integrative reading mechanisms. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 9(7), pp1-17.
 Drai-Zerbib, V., Baccino, T. & Bigand, E., 2011. Sight-reading expertise: Cross-modality integration investigated using eye tracking. Psychology of Music, 40(2), pp. 216-235.
 Goolsby, T. W., 1994. Profiles of Processing: Eye Movements during Sightreading. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12(1), pp. 97-123.
 Huovinen, E., Ylitalo, A. K. & Puurtinen, M., 2018. Early attraction in temporally controlled sight reading of music. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 11(2), pp. 1-30.
 Madell, J. & Hebert, S., 2008. Eye movements and music reading: Where do we look next?. Music Perception, 26(2), pp. 157-170.
 Puurtinen, M., 2018. Eye on Music Reading: A Methodologocial Review of Studies from 1994 to 2017. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 11(2), pp. 1-16.
 Puurtinen, M., 2018. Learning on the job: Rethinks and realizations about eye tracking in music-reading studies. Frontline Learning Research, 6(3), pp. 148-161.
 Sloboda, J. A., 1984. Experimental Studies of Music Reading: A Review. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2(2), pp. 222-236.
 Waters, A. J., Townsend, E. & Underwood, G., 1998. Expertise in musical sight reading: A study of pianists. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 89, pp. 123-149.
 Wolf, T., 1976. A cognitive model of musical sight-reading. Journal of Psycholinguist Research, 5(2), pp. 143-171.