Using Dynamic Glazing to Eliminate Mechanical Cooling in Multi-family Highrise Buildings
Multifamily residential buildings are increasingly being built with large glazed areas to provide tenants with greater daylight and outdoor views. However, traditional double-glazed window assemblies can lead to significant thermal discomfort from high radiant temperatures as well as increased cooling energy use to address solar gains. Dynamic glazing provides an effective solution by actively controlling solar transmission to maintain indoor thermal comfort, without compromising the visual connection to outdoors. This study uses thermal simulations across three Canadian cities (Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal) to verify if dynamic glazing along with operable windows and ceiling fans can maintain the indoor operative temperature of a prototype southwest facing high-rise apartment unit within the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort range for a majority of the year, without any mechanical cooling. Since this study proposes the use of natural ventilation for cooling and the typical building life cycle is 30-40 years, the typical weather files have been modified based on accepted global warming projections for increased air temperatures by 2050. Results for the prototype apartment confirm that thermal discomfort with dynamic glazing occurs only for less than 0.7% of the year. However, in the baseline scenario with low-E glass there are up to 7% annual hours of discomfort despite natural ventilation with operable windows and improved air movement with ceiling fans.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 153
 Brager, G.,& de Dear, R. Climate, Comfort & Natural Ventilation: A new adaptive comfort standard for ASHRAE Standard 55 UC Berkeley: Center for the Built Environment. 2001
 Brager, G., Paliaga, G., & de Dear, R. Operable windows, personal control and occupant comfort. UC Berkeley: Center for the Built Environment. 2004
 Brager, G.,& de Dear, R. Developing an Adaptive Model of Thermal Comfort ad Preference - Final Report on RP-884. ASHRAE Transactions 104(1) January 1997
 Efficiency Canada, 2020. Retrieved from https://www.efficiencycanada.org/what-you-need-to-know-about-the-new-building-codes/
 Efficiency Canada, 2020, Retrieved from https://database.efficiencycanada.org/BC/
 de Dear, R., V. Foldvary, H. Zhang, E. Arens, M. Luo, T. Parkinson, X. Du, W. Zhang, C. Chun, & S. Liu. Comfort is in the mind of the beholder: A review of progress in adaptive thermal comfort research over the past two decades. The Fifth International Conference on Human-Environment System. Nagoya, Japan. October 29-November 2. 2006
 ASHRAE, ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 55-2017 Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA.
 Granqvist, C.G., Arvizu, M.A., Bayrak Pehlivan, I., Qu, H.-Y., Wen, R.-T., Niklasson, G.A. Electrochromic materials and, devices for energy efficiency and human comfort in buildings: A critical review, Electrochimica Acta, Volume 259,Pages 1170-1182, 2018
 Dutta, R. Modeling an electrochromic window using a multi-criteria control strategy. Building Performance Analysis Conference and Simbuild co-organized by ASHRAE and IBPSA-USA, Chicago, 2018
 Climate Projections for Metro Vancouver, Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium, 2016
 Dickinson, R., Brannon, B. Generating future weather files for resilience. 36th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture.
 National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings 2017. National Research Council Canada
 UIUC, LBNL. 2019. EnergyPlus Application Guide for EMS, U.S. Department of Energy.
 Ellis, P. G., Torcellini, P. A., Crawley, D. B. Simulation of energy management systems in EnergyPlus. Building Simulation 2007, Beijing, China.
 Lyons, P., Wong, J., Bhandari, M.A. Comparison of Window Modeling Methods in EnergyPlus 4.0, Fourth National Conference of IBPSA 2010, New York
 LBNL, 2017. Berkeley Lab Window v7.7.7, Regents of the University of California
 Informative Appendix J, ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 55-2017 Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: Atlanta, GA.
 City of Vancouver Energy Modelling Guidelines v2.0. Amended July 2018
 Sacht, Helenice Maria and Marieli Azoia Lukiantchuki. “Windows Size and the Performance of Natural Ventilation.” Procedia Engineering 196 (2017): 972-979.