Women's Employment Issues in Georgia and Solutions Based on European Experience
Women's Employment is one of the most important issues in the global economy. The article discusses the stated topic in Georgia, through historical content, Soviet experience, and modern perspectives. The paper discusses segmentation insa terms of employment and related problems. Based on statistical analysis, women's unemployment rate and its factors are analyzed. The level of employment of women in Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) is discussed and is compared with Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia). The study analyzes women’s level of development, according to the average age of marriage and migration level. The focus is on Georgia's Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which includes economic, social, trade and political issues. One part of it is gender equality at workplaces. According to the research, the average monthly remuneration of women managers in the financial and insurance sector equaled to 1044.6 Georgian Lari, while in overall business sector average monthly remuneration equaled to 961.1 GEL. Average salaries are increasing; however, the employment rate remains problematic. For example, in 2017, 74.6% of men and 50.8% of women were employed from a total workforce. It is also interesting that the proportion of men and women at managerial positions is 29% (women) to 71% (men). Based on the results, the main recommendation for government and civil society is to consider women as a part of the country’s economic development. In this aspect, the experience of developed countries should be considered. It is important to create additional jobs in urban or rural areas and help migrant women return and use their working resources properly.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 215
 Human Development Report 2016, United Nations Development Programme, 2016 http://hdr.undp.org/en/2016-report
 Cohen, David “Keeping Men “Men” and Women Down: Sex Segregation, Anti-Essentialism, and Masculinity”, 2010.
 International Labour Organization Geneva, Global Employment Trends for Women, International Labour Organization, 2012; Judith Butler, Gender Trouble, US, Routledge, 1990
 Walsouncraft M., Protection of women’s rights, Penguin Classics, 1992.
 Grant Thornton international business report 2016: Women in business: Transforming promises to reality.
 Real Unemployment -- Department of Labor (U-6), http://news.gallup.com/poll/189068/bls-unemployment-seasonally-adjusted.aspx.
 Gender Inequality in Production and Reproduction, Economic and Social Research Counsel, http://www.researchcatalogue.esrc.ac.uk/grants/RES-225-25-2001/read/outputs\
 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 2016 http://w3.unece.org/PXWeb/en/
 The role and importance of small and medium size business in raising income and solving employment problems. National Parliamentary Library of Georgia. www.nplg.gov.ge.
 Fratczak, Ewa “Childbearing, Women's Employment and Work-Life Balance Policies in Contemporary Europe”, 2013.
 Luxemburg, Rosa “Women’s Suffrage and Class Struggle”, 1912.
 Khachapuridze E., Employment By Gender, Published in 16.02.2012.
 Georgian statistics is taken from National Statistics Office of Georgia, www.geostat.ge.
 Central Intelligence Agency, The world factbook, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2112rank.html
 Bureau of Labor Statistics, USA, 2018 https://www.bls.gov/cps/cps_htgm.htm.
 State Concept of Gender Equality, 2. Definition of Terms, 2006. www.eurofound.europa.eu.
 Number of Population, The World Bank Data, 2017 https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.
 Net Migration Data, The World Bank, 2017 https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM?year_high_desc=true.
 Kharaishvili, E., Chavleishvili, M., Lobzhanidze, M., Damenia, N., & Sagareishvili, N. (2017). Problems of Youth Employment in Agricultural Sector of Georgia and Causes of Migration. International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 11(10), 2116-2121.
 Research: „Gender Discrimination in the Labor market in Georgia“, CSS, Tbilisi, 2015.
 Human Development Data (1990-2017), United Nations Development Programme, 2017 http://hdr.undp.org/en/data.
 Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, https://police.ge/ge/odjakhuri-dzaladoba-2007-2014-tsts-ianvar-ivnisi/6901.