Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from Fish Mongers within Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria
The concentration of heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu) in Clarias gariepinus collected from fish markets; Fanibi (Station I) and Fiwasaye (Station II) in Akure metropolis, Ondo state, Nigeria were investigated to ascertain the safety for the consumers. 60 samples were collected from the two markets in three batches (I, II, III) for a period of six months and analyzed for heavy metals in the gills and muscles of the fish. Also, the Health Risk Index (HRI) was used to determine the health risk of these metals to the consumer. The results showed that the investigated metal concentration was higher in station I than station II, except Pb having higher concentration in station II than station I. In both stations, the highest concentration of Fe was recorded in the gills (12.60 ± 1.51; 6.94 ± 1.38) and muscles (3.72 ± 0.09; 3.86 ± 0.33) of samples in batch I. Also, the HRI revealed that consumption of Clarias gariepinus from these study areas did not pose any health risk (HRI < 1). In addition, concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits recommended by FAO/WHO.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 257
 B. H. Osadolor and O. A. Olumide, “Evaluation of flesh and serum concentration of Al, Zn, Mn and Sb in African catfish Clarias gariepinus reared in plastic ponds in Benin City, Nigeria,” J. of Appl. Sci. Env. Manag., vol. 21, 2017, pp. 406-410.
 D. V. Chapman, World Health Organization, Unesco & United Nations Environment Programme. Water quality assessments: a guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, edited by Deborah Chapman, 2nd ed. London: E & FN Spon, (1996). http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41850
 F. E. Olaifa, A. K. Olaifa, A. A. Adelaja and A. G. Owolabi, “Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from lake and fish farm in Ibadan, Nigeria,” J. of Biom. Res., vol. 7, 2004, pp. 145-148
 F. E. Olubunmi, “Evaluation of the status of heavy metal pollution of sediment of Agbagbu bitumen deposit area, Nigeria” J. of Sci. Res., vol. 41, 2010, pp 373-382
 F. Yilmaz, “The comparison of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu,Mn and Zn) in tissues of three economically important fish (Anguilla Anguilla, Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis niloticus) inhabiting Koycegic Lake –Mugla (Turkey),” Turk. J. of Sci. and Tech., vol. 4, 2009, pp. 7-15
 FAO, Joint WHO/FAO Food Standard Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission 13TH session. Report of the Thirty-Eight Session of the Codex Com.on Food Hyg., Houston, United States of America, AliNorm, July, 2007.
 FAO/WHO, Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants, mercury, lead and cadmium. Sixteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert committee of food Additives. Published by FAO and WHO, Geneva, 1972, pp. 1-33
 H. E. Onyidoh, F. M. Ismail, A. M. Muhammad, and J. A. Idris, “Risk Assessment of heavy metals in wild and farmed Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria,” Greener J. of Agric. Sci., vol. 8, 2018, pp. 12-21
 H. I. Kelle, E. O. Ngbede, V. U. Oguezi, and F. C. Ibkwe, “Determination of heavy metals in fish (Clarias gariepinus) organs from Asaba Major Market, Delta State, Nigeria”. Amer. Chem. Sci. J. vol. 5, 2015, pp. 135-147
 J. K. Nzere, S. G. Njuguna and E. C. Kitur, “Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Clarias gariepinus and Orechromis spirulus niger from Masinga Reservoir, Kenya,” J. of Env. Sci. tox. and food tech., vol. 8, 2014, pp. 34-42
 J. O. Osakwe, P. Adowei, and M. Horsfal, “Heavy metals body burden and Evaluation of human health risk in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from Imo River, Nigeria,” Act. Chi. and Pharm. Ind., vol. 4, 2014, pp. 78-89
 K. E. Ekpo, I. O. Asia, K. O. Amayo, and D. A. Jegede, “Determination of lead, cadmium and mercury in surrounding water and organs of some species of fish from Ikpoba river in Benin city, Nigeria,” Int. J. of Phy. Sci., vol. 3, 2008, pp. 289-292
 M. Dural, M.Z.L Goksu, and A. A. Ozak, “Investigation of heavy metals levels in economically important fish species captured from the Tuzla Lagoon,” Food Chem, vol. 102, 2007, pp. 415-421
 O. O. Olawusi-Peters, and J. O. Akinola, “Assessment of heavy metals concentration in the coastal waters of ondo State, Nigeria using Nematopalaemon hastatus and Farfantepenaeus notialis as bioindicator,” 5th Annual Conference of School of Science, FUTA, Akure, 2017, pp175- 184.
 O.O. Olawusi-Peters, C.I. Ayo-Olalusi, and T. V. Adeyemi, “Bioaccumulation of Some Trace Element (Zn, Fe, Pb, and Cu) in the Gills and Tissues of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus in River Ogbese, Ondo State, Nigeria,” J. of Env. Chem. and Ecotoxi, vol. 6, 2014, pp. 13-19.
 P. O. Isibor, and T. O. T. Imoobe, Comparative Analysis of Contaminability between C. gariepinus and T. mariae. Annual Research and Review in Biology, 2017, vol. 16 pp. 1-14
 R. A. Olowu, O. O. Ayejuyo, G. O. Adewuji, I. A. Adejoro, A. B. Denloye, A. O Babatunde, and A. L. Ogundajo, “Determination of heavy metals in fish tissues, water and sediment from Epe and Badagry Lagoon, Lagos.” E – J. of. Chem. vol. 7, 2010, pp. 215-221
 US Environmental Protection Agency, “Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Method 8100. US Environmental Protection Agency, 1986.
 US Environmental Protection Agency, United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Risk-based concentration table” Philadelphia: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D C, 2009.
 World Health Organization “Zinc in drinking water”. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. vol. 2, 1996, pp.1-10. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_ health/dwq/chemicals/zinc.pdf
 World Health Organization, “Chromium in drinking –water,” Background document for preparation of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/4), 2003.