Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32583
Leadership Styles in the Hotel Sector and Its Effect on Employees’ Creativity and Organizational Commitment

Authors: Hatem Radwan Ibrahim Radwan


Leadership is crucial for hotel survival and success. It enables hotels to develop and compete effectively. This research intends to explore the implementation of six leadership styles by frontline hotel managers in four star hotels in Cairo and assess its impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment. The leadership patterns considered in this study includes: democratic, autocratic, laissez-faire, transformational, transactional, and ethical leaderships. Questionnaire was used as a research method to gather data. A structured survey was established and distributed on employees in Cairo’s four star hotels. A total of 284 questionnaire forms were returned and usable for statistical analysis. The results of this study identified that transactional and autocratic leadership were the prevalent styles used in four star hotels in Cairo. Two leadership styles proved to have significant high correlation and impact on employees’ creativity and organizational commitment including: transformational and democratic leadership. Besides, laissez-faire leadership was found had a smaller effect on employees’ creativity and ethical leadership had a lesser influence on employees’ commitment. The autocratic leadership had strong negative correlation and significant impact on both dependent variables. This research concludes that frontline hotel managers should adopt transformational and/or democratic leadership style in managing their subordinates.

Keywords: Creativity, hotels, leadership styles, organizational commitment.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7107


[1] A. Awee, W. Cheah, C. Cheng, K. Hong, L. Ling and M. Tan, “Effect of servant leadership on affective commitment among hotel employees,” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, vol. 4, issue 11, pp. 1-7, 2014.
[2] L. Firth, D.J. Mellor, K.A. Moore and C. Loquet, “How can managers reduce employee intention to quit?,” Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 170-187, 2004.
[3] L. Veliu, M. Manxhari, V. Demiri and L. Jahaj, “The influence of leadership styles on employee’s performance,” Vadyba / Journal of Management, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 59–69, 2017.
[4] T. Saner and S.Z. Eyupoglu, “Gender and leadership behavior in the hospitality industry: a study of managers in 5-star hotels in north Cyprus”, International Conference on Management, Applied and Social Sciences (ICMASS'2012) March 24-25, Dubai, pp. 368-370, 2012.
[5] O.S. Abomeh, “Assessment of leadership style among hospitality business in Abuja,” Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 43-57, 2013.
[6] H. Saleem, “The impact of leadership styles on job satisfaction and mediating role of perceived organizational politics,” Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 172, pp. 563 – 569, 2015.
[7] P.G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, 4th Edition, Sage, California, 2007.
[8] M.F.Y. Cheung and C.S. Wong, “Transformational leadership, leader support and employee creativity,” Leadership and Organization Development Journal, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 656-672, 2011.
[9] G.J. Puccio, M. Mance and M.C. Murdock, Creative Leadership: Skills that Drive Change, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2011.
[10] H. Nabil, G. Abderraouf and R. Nadira, “The impact of leadership on creativity and innovation,” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, vol. 6, issue 6, pp. 55-62, 2017.
[11] N.N.N. Dlamini, A.K. Garg and M. Muchie, “The impact of transformational leadership style on organizational commitment in the hospitality industry,” African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-21, 2017.
[12] M.D. Mumford, “Where have we been, where are we going? taking stock in creativity research,” Creativity Research Journal, vol. 15, pp. 107–120, 2003.
[13] O. State and M. Iorgulescu, “The impact of management and organizational culture on creativity in the hotel industry,” Contemporary Approaches and Challenges of Tourism Sustainability, vol. XVI, special no. 8, pp. 1205-1221, 2014.
[14] L.P.V. Karunathilake, “The impact of leaders’ characteristics and their behavior to the employee performance in the hotel industry in Sri Lanka,” Wayamba Journal of Management, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 9-19, 2016.
[15] K. Petkovski, “Required skills and leadership characteristics of a modern manager in tourism and hospitality,” UTMS Journal of Economics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 91–96, 2012.
[16] R.H. Woods and J.Z. King, Leadership and Management in The Hospitality Industry, Lansing, Michigan: Educational Institute, American Hotel and Lodging Association, 2010.
[17] M. Kuznin and J.K. Walker, “Contemporary leadership challenges in hospitality organizations in time of uncertainty and change,” Management and Organization, Original scientific paper UDK: 640.4:65.012.4, JEL classification: L83, M54, PP. 455-468, 2017.
[18] J.E. Miller, J.R. Walker and K.E. Drummond, Supervision in The Hospitality Industry, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New Jersey, 2002.
[19] M. Jeremy, C. Melinde and V. Ciller, “Perceived leadership style and employee participation in a manufacturing company in the democratic republic of Congo,” African Journal of Business Management, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 5389-5398, 2012.
[20] D. Rollinson, Organizational Behaviour and Analysis: An Integrated Approach, Pearson Education Limited, Harlow, Esse, 2005.
[21] R.R. Kavanaugh and J.D. Ninemeier, Supervision in The Hospitality Industry, 3rd Edition, The Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Lodging Association, Michigan, 2001.
[22] L. Kagwiria, “Influence of leadership on employee productivity at KCB bank Kenya Ltd, Nairobi Region Branches,” A Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of The Requirement for The Award of Master of Science in Human Resource Management, School of Business, University of Nairobi, November, 2016.
[23] M.N. Khuong and L.K. Khanh, “The influence of leadership styles on employee mood and job performance: a study of hotels and restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam,” International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 140-147, 2016.
[24] R.L. Sorenson, “The contribution of leadership style and practices to family and business success,” Family Business Review, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 183-200, 2010.
[25] L.H. Richard, C.G. Robert and J.C. Gordon, Leadership: Enhancing The Lessons of Experience, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2009.
[26] B.M. Bass and R.E. Riggio, Transformational Leadership, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2006.
[27] R.J. Stafford, “The applicability of Bass's model of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership in the hospital administrative environment,” Hospital Topics, vol. 84 no. 2, pp. 11-19, 2010.
[28] C.P. Egri and S. Herman, “Leadership in the north American environmental sector: values, leadership styles, and contexts of environmental leaders and their organizations,” Academy of Management journal, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 571-604, 2011.
[29] H.V. Erkutlu and J. Chafra, “Relationship between leadership power bases and job stress of subordinates: example from boutique hotels,” Management Research News, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 285-297, 2006.
[30] M. Sashkin and M.G. Sashkin, Leadership that Matters: The Critical Factors for Making A Difference in People’s Lives and Organizations’ Success, San Fransisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2003.
[31] P.G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, 5th Edition, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2010.
[32] O.C. Timothy, O.T. Andy, A.O. Victoria and N.A. Idowu, “Effect of leadership style on organizational performance: a survey of selected small scale enterprises in Ikosi-Ketu council development area of Lagos State, Nigeria,” Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 100-111, 2011.
[33] B.M. Bass, “Does the transactional–transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries?” American Psychologist, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 130-139, 1997.
[34] B.M. Bass, “from transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the vision,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 18, issue 3, pp. 19-31, 1990.
[35] B. Bigharaz, A. Kamalian and A. Roshan, “Relationship between transformational leadership and employee creativity,” First Annual Conference of Management, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Shiraz, 2010.
[36] S. Mittal and R.L. Dhar, “Transformational leadership and employee creativity: mediating role of creative self-efficacy and moderating role of knowledge sharing,” Management Decision, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 894-910, 2015.
[37] D. Herrmann and J. Felfe, “Moderators of the relationship between leadership style and employee creativity: the role of task novelty and personal initiative,” Creativity Research Journal, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 172-181, 2013.
[38] M. Tims, A.B. Bakker and D. Xanthopoulou, “Do transformational leaders enhance their followers’ daily work engagement?”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 121-131, 2011.
[39] W.L. Gardner and B.J. Avolio, “The charismatic relationship: a dramaturgical perspective,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 32-58, 1998.
[40] M.E. Brown, L.K. Trevino and D.A. Harrison, “Ethical leadership: a social learning perspective for construct development and testing,” Management International Review, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 235-254, 2005.
[41] A.H.B. De Hoogh and D.N. Den Hartog, “Ethical and despotic leadership, relationships with leader’s social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates’ optimism: a multi-method study,” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 19, pp. 297–311, 2008.
[42] R. Khuntia and D. Suar, “A scale to assess ethical leadership of Indian private and public sector managers,” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 49, pp. 13−26, 2004.
[43] C. Babaita, G. Sipos, A. Ispas and A. Nagy, “Leadership style and culture for innovation in hotel industry,” Proceedings of The 5th WSEAS International Conference on Economy and Management Transformation, (Volume II), West University of Timisoara, Romania, October 24-26, 2010.
[44] J.P. De Jong and D.N. Den Hartog, “How leaders influence participants' innovative behavior,” European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 41-64, 2007.
[45] S.J. Shin and J. Zhou, “Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: evidence from Korea,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 703-714, 2003.
[46] A.A. Akbar, R. Sadegh and R. Chehrazi, “Impact of transformational and transactional leadership style on employees’ creativity and innovation,” I J A B E R, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 3489-3505, 2015.
[47] T. Slatten, S. Goran and S. Svari, “Empowering leadership and the influence of a humorous work climate on service employees' creativity and innovative behaviour in frontline service jobs,” International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 267-284, 2011.
[48] D.I. Jung, C. Chow and A. Wu, “The role of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational innovation: hypotheses and some preliminary findings,” Leadership Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 4-5, pp. 525-544, 2003.
[49] N.J. Allen and J.P. Meyer, “The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1-18, 1990.
[50] A.J.P. Lim, J.T.K. Loo and P.H. Lee, “The impact of leadership on turnover intention: the mediating role of organizational commitment and job satisfaction,” Journal of Applied Structural Equation Modeling, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 27-41, 2017.
[51] M. Al-Ababneh, “Leadership style of managers in five-star hotels and its relationship with employee’s job satisfaction,” International Journal of Management and Business Studies, vol. 3, issue 2, pp. 93-98, 2013.
[52] K. Rothfelder, M.C. Ottenbacher and R.J. Harrington, “The impact of transformational, transactional and non-leadership styles on employee job satisfaction in the German hospitality industry,” Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 201-214, 2013.
[53] B.M. Bass, “Leadership: good, better, best,” Journal of Organizational Dynamics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 26-40, 1985.
[54] C. Natarajan, “Relationship of organizational commitment with job satisfaction,” Indian Journal of Commerce and Management Studies, vol. II, issue 1, pp. 118-122, 2011.
[55] N. Nusair, R. Ababneh and Y.K. Bae, “The Impact of transformational leadership style on innovation as perceived by public employees in Jordan,” International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 182-201, 2012.
[56] W.Q. Judge, G.E. Fryxell and R.S. Dooley, “The new task of R&D management: creating goal-directed communities for innovation,” California Management Review, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 72–85, 1997.
[57] O. Janssen, “The joint impact of perceived influence and supervisor supportiveness on employee innovative behavior,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 573–579, 2005.