Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30836
Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami


A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: spectrophotometry, palladium, Para-methylphenyl thiourea

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 169


[1] G. H. Morrison and H. Freiser. Solvent extraction in analytical chemistry, Wiley, New York: pp. 75 (1957)
[2] J.D. Lee, Concise Inorganic chemistry. Blackwell science Ltd. Oxford, UK: pp. 801, (1996).
[3] E. Z. Jahromi, A. Divsalar, A. A. Saboury, and I. Kostova, Journal of Iranian chemical society 13,967–989 (2016).
[4] J. Kielhorn, C. Melber, D. Keller, and I. Mangelsdorf International Journal Hygiene Environmental Health, 205, 417–432 (2002).
[5] N. Alizadh, S. Salimi, and A. Jabbari Anaiytical Sciences, 18,307-311 (2002).
[6] K. Kaikake, and Y. Baba, Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange, 20, 491-503 (2002).
[7] L.S. Sharma, J.R. Kumar, K.J. Reddy, A.K. Kumar and A.V. Reddy, Analytical sciences, 18,1257-1261 (2002).
[8] S. Nain, N. Agnihotri, and L.R. Kakkar, Journal of Ind. Chem. Society, 85,228-230 (2008).
[9] V.J. Sawant, and S.B. Jagtap International Research Journal, I, 75-77 (2009).
[10] A.M.A. Khader, and K.S. Prasad, Turkish. Journal of Chemistry, 20,222-227 (1996).
[11] A. Kumar, P. Sharma, L .K. Chandel, and B .L. Kalal, J.Incl. Phenom. Macrocycl. chem., 6,335-342 (2008).
[12] A. Varghese, A.M.A. Khader, Indian J. Chem. Technol., 18,177-182 (2011).
[13] A. Bhalotra and B.K. Puri, Microchemica. Acta. , 134, 139-143 (2000).
[14] I. Srivani, P.A. Kumar, P.R. Reddy, and V.K. Reddy, Annali di Chimica., 97, 1237-1245 (2007).
[15] P. G. Chowdary, V. S. Basha, and V.S. Anusuya, Devi, IOSR Journal of Applied Physics, 8 55-59 (2016).
[16] V. Vojkovic, and V. Druskovic, Croatica. Chemica .Acta, 76, 87-92, (2003).
[17] H. Lin, Z.liya, Z. Huang, Q. Hu, G. Zhang and G. Yang, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 19,836-842, (2007).
[18] Y. Dong and Ke. Gai, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 26,943-946 (2005).
[19] B. Peng, X. Guo, X. Mao, J. Gao, Cent. Eur .J. Chem., 5,912-921 (2007).
[20] P.Nagaraj, G.N. Bhat, and K.G. Chandrashekhara, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 5, 19-26 (2015).
[21] G. B. Sathe, V. V. Vaidya, and R.G. Deshmukh, International Journal of Advanced Research, 3,699-704 (2015).
[22] G.B. Pethe, S.G. Bhadange, M.D. Joshi and A.S. Aswar, Advances in Applied Science Research, 1, 58-64 (2010).
[23] A. Y. Muhi, Baghdad Science Journal, 8, 996-1004 (2011).
[24] L. Lozynska, O. Tymoshuk and T. Chaban, Acta Chim. Slov., 62,159–167 (2015).
[25] M. Challa, and T.S. Reddy, African Journal of Pure and Applied Chem., 5,442-447 (2011).
[26] H. Eskandari, and M. Khoshandam, Microchem. Acta. 175, 291-299 (2011).
[27] B. Du, T., Liu, J. Wang, S.Y. Liu, and Q. Wei, Journal of Anal. Chem., 62, 794-800 (2007) .
[28] S.H. Gaikwad, and M.A. Anuse, Ind. J. Chem. tech., 10,447-453 (2003).
[29] A.P. Kumar , P.R. Reddy, V.K. Reddy, and Y.I. Lee, Anal .Letter, 42,84-93 (2009).
[30] Z. Huang, Q. Wei, X. Yang, Q. Hu, J. Chen, G. Yang, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 26, 1623-1626, (2005).
[31] B. Mathew, and D. Innocent, Asian Journal of Chemistry, 22, 7551-7556 (2010).
[32] P. Madan, and V. D. Barhate, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 7, 1113-1116 (2015).
[33] S. D. Dhanavate, D. J. Garole, V. J. Garole , S. R. Tetgure and A. D. Sawant, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, 23,20-28 (2014).
[34] M. Renuka, and H.K. Reddy, Research Journal of Pharma., Biological and Chemical Sciences, 5,118-130 (2014).
[35] B. Mathew, V. Mini, and B. Deepthi, Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 26, 233-238 (2010).
[36] W. Qu and C. Zhou, Advanced Materials Research, 781-784, 51-54 (2013).
[37] L. Lozynska, O. Tymoshuk, and P. Rydchuk, Chem. Met. Alloys, 7,119-122 (2014).
[38] D. Gopalakrishna and Ch. K. Devi, International Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 5, 85-87 (2015).
[39] K.G. Chandrashekhara, G.N. Bhat, and P. Nagaraj, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 2, 1-4 (2015).
[40] S. Azmi, B. Iqbal, B. Ruqishi, S. Sayabi, N. Quraini and N. Rahman, Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Basic and Applied Sciences, 19,29-36 (2016).
[41] S. L. Narayana, K. J. Reddy, S.A. N .Reddy, J.R. Kumar and A. V. Reddy, Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 54, 1233-1241 (2007).
[42] M. Zeydvandi and N. J. Pourreza, Anal. Chem., 61,744–747 (2006).
[43] K. J. Reddy, J. R. Kumar, C. Ramachandraiah, S. A. Reddy and A. V. Reddy, Environ Monit Assess. , 136, 337–346 (2008).
[44] Y. S. Shelar, H. R. Aher, S.R. Kuchekar, S. H. Han, Bulgarian Chemical Communications, 45, 172 – 179 (2012).
[45] N.H. Furman, Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis. 6th edn. Malabar Florida (1962).
[46] R.L. Frank, P.V. Smith, Org. Synth., 28, 89-89 (1948).
[47] E.B. Sandell, Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals. Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, pp 671,426,608,888,600 (1965).