Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30127
Bio-Psycho-Social Consequences and Effects in Fall-Efficacy Scale in Seniors Using Exercise Intervention of Motor Learning According to Yoga Techniques

Authors: Milada Krejci, Martin Hill, Vaclav Hosek, Dobroslava Jandova, Jiri Kajzar, Pavel Blaha


The paper declares effects of exercise intervention of the research project “Basic research of balance changes in seniors”, granted by the Czech Science Foundation. The objective of the presented study is to define predictors, which influence bio-psycho-social consequences and effects of balance ability in senior 65 years old and above. We focused on the Fall-Efficacy Scale changes evaluation in seniors. Comprehensive hypothesis of the project declares, that motion uncertainty (dyskinesia) can negatively affect the well-being of a senior in bio-psycho-social context. In total, random selection and testing of 100 seniors (30 males, 70 females) from Prague and Central Bohemian region was provided. The sample was divided by stratified random selection into experimental and control groups, who underwent input and output testing. For diagnostics the methods of Medical Anamnesis, Functional anthropological examinations, Tinetti Balance Assessment Tool, SF-36 Health Survey, Anamnestic comparative self-assessment scale were used. Intervention method called "Life in Balance" based on yoga techniques was applied in four-week cycle. Results of multivariate regression were verified by repeated measures ANOVA: subject factor, phase of intervention (between-subject factor), body fluid (within-subject factor) and phase of intervention × body fluid interaction). ANOVA was performed with a repetition involving the factors of subjects, experimental/control group, phase of intervention (independent variable), and x phase interaction followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison assays with a test strength of at least 0.8 on the probability level p < 0.05. In the paper results of the first-year investigation of the three years running project are analysed. Results of balance tests confirmed no significant difference between females and males in pre-test. Significant improvements in balance and walking ability were observed in experimental group in females comparing to males (F = 128.4, p < 0.001). In the females control group, there was no significant change in post- test, while in the female experimental group positive changes in posture and spine flexibility in post-tests were found. It seems that females even in senior age react better to incentives of intervention in balance and spine flexibility. On the base of results analyses, we can declare the significant improvement in social balance markers after intervention in the experimental group (F = 10.5, p < 0.001). In average, seniors are used to take four drugs daily. Number of drugs can contribute to allergy symptoms and balance problems. It can be concluded that static balance and walking ability of seniors according Tinetti Balance scale correlate significantly with psychic and social monitored markers.

Keywords: Exercises, balance, seniors 65+, health, mental and social balance.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 59


[1] European Comission. Public Health. Aging. The 2016 Call for Commitments of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. 10/02/2016 Available from:
[2] CSSZ. EU, Prague, 2016. Available from:
[3] Crimmins, E.M, Preston, SH, Cohen, B, (Eds.) International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages. Dimensions and Sources. Washington: The National Academies Press; 2010. 428 p.
[4] Word Health Organization (WHO) Strategy and action plan for healthy ageing in Europe, 2012–2020, Regional Office for Europe. 2017. Available from:
[5] Ni Chronin, D, Ni Chronin, CH, Beveridge, A. Factors influencing deprescribing habits among geriatricians. Age Ageing. 2015; March (10) 3:2-7.
[6] Krejci, M, et al. Wellness. Praha: Grada Publishing; 2016.
[7] Berg, KO, Wood-Dauphine, SL, Williams, JI, Maki, B. School of Physical and Occupational Therapy. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1992; 83(2):7-11.
[8] Lord SR, Castell S. The effect of physical activity program on balance, strength, neuromuscular control and reaction time in older persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994; 75:648–52. ISSN 8002-0763.
[9] Vellas BJ.,Wayne SJ., Romero LJ., Baumgartner RN, Garry PJ. Fear of falling and restriction of mobility in elderly fallers. Age and Ageing. 1997; 26(3):189-193.
[10] Tinneti ME, Richman D, Powell L. Falls efficacy as a measure of fear of falling. J Gerontol. 1990; 45(6):239-43.
[11] Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Robertson MC, Lamb SE, Cumming RG, Rowe, BH. The Cochrane Collaboration - Interventions for preventing falls in elderly people. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004; 4(1):74-82.
[12] Klan J, Topinková E. Pády a jejich rizikove faktory ve stáří. Česká geriatrická revue. 2003; 1 (2):41-42.
[13] Janečková B, Szabo K, Kalová H, Poncarová E, Petr P. Risk of falls in ambulant and stationary care. Prevence úrazů, otrav a násilí. 2013; 9(2):129-134.
[14] Schwenk M, DeHaven JE, Honarvararaghi B, Armstrong DG, Najafri B. Effectiveness of Foot and Ankle Exercise Programs on Reducing the Risk of Falling in Older Adults: J. Am. Pediatr. Med. Assoc. 2013; 103 (1):534-547.
[15] Kannus P, et al. Alarming rise in the number and incidence of fall-induced cervical spine injuries among older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2007; 62(2):180-183.
[16] World Health Organization (WHO) Global report on falls Prevention in older Age. 2007. Available from: publications/Falls_prevention7March.pdf
[17] Barnett, A., Smith, B., Lord, S.R., Williams, M., Baumand, A. Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: a randomised controlled trial. Age Ageing, 2003, 32 (4):407–414.
[18] Sherrington, C., Lord, S.R., Finch, C. F. Physical activity interventions to prevent falls among older people: update of the evidence. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2004, 7(1):43–51.
[19] National Institute on Aging (NIA) Growing Older in America: The Health and Retirement Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2007; 76 p.
[20] Avendano M, Glymour MM, Banks J, Mackenbach JP. Health disadvantage in US adults aged 50 to 74 years: A comparison of the health of rich and poor Americans with that of Europeans. American Journal of Public Health. 2009; 99(3):540-548.
[21] Oxley H. Policies for Healthy Ageing: An Overview. OECD Health Working Papers. 2009; 28(2):3-26.
[22] Janečková B, Szabo K, Kalová H, Poncarová E, Petr P. Risk of falls in ambulant and stationary care. Prevence úrazů, otrav a násilí. 2013; 9(2):129-134.
[23] Kannig A, Schlicht WA. Bio-Psycho-Social Model of Successful Aging as shown through the Variable of “Physical Activity”. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity. 2008; 5 (2): 9-87.
[24] Bielaková A Matějovská Kubešová H, Weber P. Prevention and management of instability and falls in geriatric patients. Geriatrie a gerontology. 2014; 3(1):25-28.