Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution by Regenerated Spent Bleaching Earth
Spent bleaching earth (SBE) recycling and utilization as an adsorbent to eliminate dyes from aqueous solution was studied. Organic solvents and subsequent thermal treatment were carried out to recover and reactivate the SBE. The effect of pH, temperature, dye’s initial concentration, and contact time on the dye removal using recycled spent bleaching earth (RSBE) was investigated. Recycled SBE showed better removal affinity of cationic than anionic dyes. The maximum removal was achieved at pH 2 and 8 for anionic and cationic dyes, respectively. Kinetic data matched with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption phenomenon governing this process was identified by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for anionic dye while Freundlich model represented the sorption process for cationic dye. The changes of Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) were computed and compared through thermodynamic study for both dyes.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3461952Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 Sokolowska-Gajda, 1996, Synthetic dyes based on environmental considerations. Dye Pigment, 30(1) 1–20.
 Ivanov K., 1996, Possibilities of using zeolite as filler and carrier for dyestuffs in paper. Papier-Zeitschrift fur die Erzeugung von Holzstoff Zellstoff Papier und Pappe, 50(7) 456-459.
 Kabdaşli I., Tünay O., Orhon D., 1996, Wastewater control and management in a leather tanning district, Water Sci Technol., 40(1) 261-267.
 Bensalah N., Alfaro M., Martínez-Huitle C., 2009, Electrochemical treatment of synthetic wastewaters containing Alphazurine A dye, Chem Eng J., 149(1) 348-352.
 Wróbel D., Boguta A., Ion R.M., 2001, Mixtures of synthetic organic dyes in a photo-electrochemical cell., J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 138(1) 7-22.
 Dawood S., Sen T.K., Phan C., 2014, Synthesis and characterisation of novel-activated carbon from waste biomass pine cone and its application in the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution by adsorption., Water Air Soil Pollut, 225(1) 1-16.
 Field M.S., Wilhelm R.G., Quinlan J.F., Aley T.J., 1995, An assessment of the potential adverse properties of fluorescent tracer dyes used for groundwater tracing. Environ Monit Assess, 38(1) 75-96.
 He L.M., Tebo B.M., 1998, Surface charge properties of and Cu (II) adsorption by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1., Appl Environ Microbiol, 64(3) 1123-1129.
 Morgan-Sagastume J., Jimenez B., Noyola A., 1997, Tracer studies in a laboratory and pilot scale UASB reactor. Environ. Technol., 18(8) 817-825.
 Hsu T.C., Chiang C.S., 1997, Activated sludge treatment of dispersed dye factory wastewater. J Environ Sci Health A., 32(7) 1921-1932.
 Wong Y.C., Szeto Y.S., Cheung A.W., Mckay G., 2004, Adsorption of acid dyes on chitosan equilibrium isotherm analyses. Process Biochem, 39(6) 695-704.
 El-Hosiny F.I., Abdel-Khalek M.A., Selim K.A., Osama I., 2018, Physicochemical Study of Dye Removal Using Electro-Coagulation-Flotation Process, Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, 54(2) 321-333.
 Gupta V., 2009, Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal-a review. J Environ Manage 2009;90(8):2313–42.
 Sanad M.F., Shalan A.E., Bazid S.M., Abdelbasir S.M., 2018, Pollutant degradation of different organic dyes using the photocatalytic activity of [email protected] nanocomposite materials. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6, 3981-3990
 Kant R., 2012, Adsorption of dye eosin from an aqueous solution on two different samples of activated carbon by static batch method. J Water Resour Prot, 4(2) 93-98.
 Sen T.K., Afroze S., Ang H., 2011, Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pine cone biomass of Pinus radiata. Water Air Soil Pollut., 218: 499-515.
 Yagub M.T., Sen T.K., Ang H., 2012, Equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics of methylene blue adsorption by pine tree leaves. Water Air Soil Pollut., 223(8) 5267-5282.
 Rehman M.S.U., Kim I., Han J.I., 2012, Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by sugar extracted spent rice biomass. Carbohydr. Polym., 90(3) 1314-1322.
 Werner Z., 1994, Spent bleaching earth-practical solutions, INFORM, 5, 1375.
 Taylor D.R., Jenkins D.B., 1990. Factors affecting the pyrophorisity of spent bleaching clay, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 67, 678.
 Bahl J.S., Dayal U., 1977, Regeneration of bleaching clays, Res. Ind. 22, 145-148.
 Kalam A., Joshi J., 1988, Regeneration of spent earth by wet oxidation, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 65, 1536.
 Sabour M.R., Shahi M., Dezvareh G.A., 2017, Reactive dye extraction utilizing regenerated bleaching earth. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage., 3(3) 299-310.
 Waldmann C., Eggers R., 1991, De-oiling contaminated bleaching clay by high-pressure extraction, JAOCS, 68, 922-930.
 King J.W., List G.R., Johnson J.H., 1992, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of spent bleaching clays, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 5, 38-41.
 Ng K.F., Nair N.K., Liew K.Y., Noor A.M., 1997, Surface and pore structure of deoiled acid and heat-treated spent bleaching clays, Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 74, 963.
 Yoo C.K., Lin S.W., 2004, Regeneration of spent bleaching clay. MPOB TT No. 230, Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Palm oil Board, Ministry of Plantation Industries and Communities.
 Boukerroui A., Ouali M.S., 2000, Regeneration of a spent bleaching earth and its use in the reﬁning of an edible oil, Journal of the Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 75, 773-776.
 Tsai W.T., Chen H.P., Hsieh M.F., Sun H.F., Chien S.F., 2002, Regeneration of spent bleaching earth by pyrolysis in a rotary furnace. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 63(1) 157-170.
 Abdel-Khalek M.A., Abdel Rahman M.K., Francis A.A., 2017, Exploring the adsorption behavior of cationic and anionic dyes on industrial waste shells of egg, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 5, 319-327.
 Oliveira C.I.R., Rocha M.C.G., Silva A.L.N., Bertolino L.C., 2016, Characterization of bentonite clays from Cubati, Paraíba (Northeast of Brazil), Cerâmica, 62, 272-277.
 Wu Z.J., Joo H., Lee K., 2005, Kinetics and thermodynamics of the organic dye adsorption on the mesoporous hybrid xerogel, Chem. Eng. J. 112, 227– 236.
 Ho Y.S., 2004, Review of Lagergren kinetic rate equation on adsorption reactions, Scientometrics 59, 171-177.
 Ho Y.S., McKay G., 2000, The kinetics of sorption of divalent metal ions onto sphagnum moss peat, Water Res. 34, 735-742.
 Fierro V., Torné-Fernández V., Montané D., Celzard A., 2008, Adsorption of phenol onto activated carbons having different textural and surface properties. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 111(1) 276-284.
 Vijaya Y., Popuri S.R., Boddu V.M., Krishnaiah A., 2008, Modified chitosan and calcium alginate biopolymer sorbents for removal of nickel (II) through adsorption. Carbohydrate Polymers, 72(2) 261-271.
 Laus R., Costa T.G., Szpoganicz B., Fávere V.T., 2010. Adsorption and desorption of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) ions using chitosan crosslinked with epichlorohydrin-triphosphate as the adsorbent. Journal of hazardous materials, 183(1-3) 233-241.
 Kamble S.P., Jagtap S., Labhsetwar N.K., Thakare D., Godfrey S., Devotta S., Rayalu S.S., 2007. Defluoridation of drinking water using chitin, chitosan and lanthanum-modified chitosan. Chemical Engineering Journal, 129(1-3) 173-180.
 Sá A., Abreu A.S., Moura I., Machado A.V., 2017. Polymeric materials for metal sorption from hydric resources, Water Purification. Elsevier, 289-322.
 Mazan T., 2014, Adsorption of molecules on polymer surfaces: Review paper, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33231.59046
 Demiral H., Demiral L., Tumsek F., Karabacakoglu B., 2008, Adsorption of Chromium (VI) From Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Derived from Olive Bagasse and Applicability of Different Adsorption Models Chem. Eng. J. 144, 188-196.
 Oladoja N., Aboluwoye C., Oladimeji Y., 2009, Kinetics and isotherm studies on methylene blue adsorption onto ground palm kernel coat. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 32(5) 303-312.
 Vaishnav V., Chandra S., Daga K., 2012, Adsorption Studies of Zn(II) ions from Wastewater using Calotropis procera as an Adsorbent. Res. J. Recent Sci, 1: 160-165.
 Gupta V.K., Agarwal S., Sadegh H., Ali G.M.A., Bharti A.K., Makhlouf A.H., 2017, Facile route synthesis of novel graphene oxide-β-cyclodextrin nanocomposite and its application as adsorbent for removal of toxic bisphenol A from the aqueous phase, Journal of Molecular Liquids 237, 466-472
 Banerjee S., Chattopadhyaya M.C., 2017, Adsorption characteristics for the removal of a toxic dye, tartrazine from aqueous solutions by a low-cost agricultural by-product, Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, S1629-S1638
 Bhattacharyya K.G., Sarma A., 2003, Adsorption characteristics of the dye, brilliant green, on neem leaf powder, Dyes Pigm. 57: 211-222.
 Aman T., Kazi A.A., Sabri M.U., Bano Q., 2008, Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 63(1): 116-121.
 Tirtom V.N., Dinçer A., Becerik S., Aydemir T., Çelik A., 2012, Comparative adsorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions on epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan–clay composite beads in aqueous solution. Chemical Engineering Journal, 197: 379-386.
 Silva M.M.F., Oliveira M.M., Avelino M.C., Fonseca M.G., Almeida, R.K.S., Silva E.C., Filho, 2012, Adsorption of an industrial anionic dye by modified-KSF-montmorillonite: evaluation of the kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium data, Chem. Eng. J. 203, 259-268.
 Fan L., Luo C., Sun M., Qiu H., Li X., 2013, Synthesis of magnetic -cyclodextrin–chitosan/graphene oxide as nanoadsorbent and its application in dye adsorption and removal, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 103, 601–607
 Akl M.A., Youssef A.M., Al-Awadhi M.M., 2013, Adsorption of Acid Dyes onto Bentonite and Surfactant-modified Bentonite, J Anal Bioanal Tech., 4 (4) 2-7.
 Mahmoud G.A., Mohamed S.F., Hassan H.M., 2015, Removal of methylene blue dye using biodegradable hydrogel and reusing in a secondary adsorption process, Desalination and Water Treatment, 54, 10. 2765-2776.